Kenya

Critically Insufficient4°C+
World
NDCs with this rating fall well outside of a country’s “fair share” range and are not at all consistent with holding warming to below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would exceed 4°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming of greater than 4°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
Highly insufficient< 4°C
World
NDCs with this rating fall outside of a country’s “fair share” range and are not at all consistent with holding warming to below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would reach between 3°C and 4°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming between 3°C and 4°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
Insufficient< 3°C
World
NDCs with this rating are in the least stringent part of a country’s “fair share” range and not consistent with holding warming below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would reach over 2°C and up to 3°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming over 2°C and up to 3°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
2°C Compatible< 2°C
World
NDCs with this rating are consistent with the 2009 Copenhagen 2°C goal and therefore fall within a country’s “fair share” range, but are not fully consistent with the Paris Agreement long term temperature goal. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming could be held below, but not well below, 2°C and still be too high to be consistent with the Paris Agreement 1.5°C limit. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with holding warming below, but not well below, 2°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
1.5°C Paris Agreement Compatible< 1.5°C
World
This rating indicates that a government’s NDCs in the most stringent part of its “fair share” range: it is consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit.
Role model<< 1.5°C
World
This rating indicates that a government’s NDC is more ambitious than what is considered a “fair” contribution: it is more than consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit. No “role model” rating has been developed for the sectors.

Summary table

Paris Agreement targets

NDC update: In December 2020, Kenya submitted a new NDC. Our analysis of its proposed target is here.


Kenya ratified the Paris Agreement on 28 December 2016 (MENR, 2017b). Kenya seeks to abate its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30% by 2030 relative to the business as usual (BAU) scenario of 153 MtCO2e (143 MtCO2e using IPCC SAR values) including LULUCF and 131 MtCO2e, if LULUCF is excluded. A 30% reduction relative to the BAU scenario equates to 110 MtCO2e in 2030, excluding LULUCF. The target is conditional on international support (MENR, 2015).

The abatement contribution of various sectors to the 30% reduction varies (MENR, 2017b). The LULUCF sector contributes the largest share (47%) to the overall emissions reductions target, with all the remaining sectors together contributing 53%. The electricity supply subsector contributes the second-largest share (22%), followed by the energy demand (14%) and the transport subsector (8%). Agriculture (6%), industrial processes (2%) and waste (1%) contribute the rest.

After excluding LULUCF and considering its disproportionately high share of the total emissions reductions target, Kenya’s maximum GHG emissions limit (excl. LULUCF) in 2030 is 110 MtCO2e. See the Assumptions for further details.

Considering the fact that the bottom-up sectoral analysis, prepared as part of developing its NDC identified the potential to reduce projected emissions by 2030 by 60% (MENR, 2017b), i.e. twice as high as the current conditional target, there is potential for Kenya to strengthen its conditional target as well as adopt an unconditional one.

The Kenyan Government plans to publish its updated NDC in the coming months and has initiated the process of developing the country’s "2050 Long-Term Greenhouse Gas Strategy and Carbon Resilience Development Pathway under the Paris Agreement" (WRI, 2019).

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