Nepal

Critically Insufficient4°C+
World
NDCs with this rating fall well outside of a country’s “fair share” range and are not at all consistent with holding warming to below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would exceed 4°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming of greater than 4°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
Highly insufficient< 4°C
World
NDCs with this rating fall outside of a country’s “fair share” range and are not at all consistent with holding warming to below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would reach between 3°C and 4°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming between 3°C and 4°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
Insufficient< 3°C
World
NDCs with this rating are in the least stringent part of a country’s “fair share” range and not consistent with holding warming below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would reach over 2°C and up to 3°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming over 2°C and up to 3°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
2°C Compatible< 2°C
World
NDCs with this rating are consistent with the 2009 Copenhagen 2°C goal and therefore fall within a country’s “fair share” range, but are not fully consistent with the Paris Agreement long term temperature goal. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming could be held below, but not well below, 2°C and still be too high to be consistent with the Paris Agreement 1.5°C limit. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with holding warming below, but not well below, 2°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
1.5°C Paris Agreement Compatible< 1.5°C
World
This rating indicates that a government’s NDCs in the most stringent part of its “fair share” range: it is consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit.
Role model<< 1.5°C
World
This rating indicates that a government’s NDC is more ambitious than what is considered a “fair” contribution: it is more than consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit. No “role model” rating has been developed for the sectors.

Summary table

Pledges and targets

In its NDC, submitted in 2016, Nepal published plans to build resilience to climate change impacts as well as to reduce GHG emissions. Nepal has given central importance to climate change adaptation in its development plans and policies. To implement these, it plans to rely mostly on technical and financial support. Although Nepal has shown its intent to reduce GHG emissions, it has not outlined an economy-wide GHG reduction target in its NDC. Some of the main elements with regards to emission mitigation in its NDC are:

  • To achieve an 80% share of electricity from renewable sources in the energy mix by 2050
  • To reduce dependency on fossil fuels by 50%
  • To expand its energy mix focusing on renewables by 20% by 2020
  • To increase the share of electric vehicles to 20% by 2020
  • To decrease its dependency on fossils in transport sector to 50% by 2050
  • To maintain 40% of the total area of the country under forest cover
  • To reduce about 14 million tonnes of CO2e by 2020 with a sub-national project on REDD+
  • To deploy renewable systems under the National Rural Renewable Energy Program (NRREP)
  • To build an electrical (hydro-powered) rail network by 2040

Under its Low Carbon Economic Development Strategy, Nepal aims to catalyse concrete actions that would support low carbon economic development in the energy, agriculture, industry, transport, waste, residential and commercial sectors, but the exact contributions of each sector are not yet defined (Government of Nepal, 2016b). The National Rural and Renewable Energy Program (NRREP) also lacks details for implementation such as the target year, the characteristics of the energy systems to be installed, and whether the target is additional or cumulative.

In addition to the NDC, Nepal prepared a national (preliminary) report on the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The report assesses the national situation by each SDG and provides inputs for national planning, dialogue, and shows a pathway for implementation. Regarding SDG13 on Climate Action, the proposed target for Nepal purports to “halve existing CO2 emissions level” (Government of Nepal, 2015). However, some concrete details like the base year, whether the target covers the entire economy and whether it is an absolute or intensity target are missing, which is why we couldn’t quantify the impacts here.

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