Saudi Arabia

Overall rating
Critically insufficient

Policies and action
against fair share

Critically insufficient
4°C+ World

NDC target
against modelled domestic pathways

Critically insufficient
4°C+ World

NDC target
against fair share

Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Climate finance
Not applicable
Net zero target



Comprehensiveness rated as

Land use & forestry
Not significant


  • Al-Ghabban, A. (2013). Saudi Arabia’s Renewable Energy Strategy and Solar Energy Deployment Roadmap, King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy. 60. Al Ghabban Presentation.pdf
  • Al Arabiya News. (2023a). Electric vehicle demand booms in Saudi Arabia amid move to green mobility.
  • Al Arabiya News. (2023b). NEOM’s green hydrogen plant will secure Saudi Arabia’s clean energy transition: CEO.
  • Al Jazeera. (2023a). Oil giant Saudi Aramco records historic $161bn profit in 2022.
  • Al Jazeera. (2023b). Saudi Arabia signs $5.6bn EV deal as it eyes closer China ties.
  • Apricum. (2022). Challenges and opportunities in Saudi Arabia’s green mobility expansion.
  • Aramco. (2023). Aramco announces record full-year 2022 results.
  • Bloomberg. (2022). Saudi Arabia Holds Middle East’s First Carbon Offset Auction.
  • Borgmann. (2016). Potentially Game-Changing Saudi Arabian Government Restructuring Bolsters 9.5 GW Renewable Energy Target by 2023.
  • BP. (2023). Statistical Review of World Energy Data 2023.
  • Carbon-Pulse. (2023). Saudi Arabia to launch domestic “Article 6-aligned” carbon crediting system in 2024.
  • Climate Action Tracker. (2023). CAT briefing: Pulling the plug on fossils in power. countries need to phase,clean power within a generation.
  • Climate Transparency. (2022). Saudi Arabia - Climate Transparency report 2022.
  • Global CCS Institute. (2023). Global Status of CCS 2022.
  • Gütschow, J., & Pflüger, M. (2023, March 15). The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series (1750-2021) v2.4.2.
  • Heede, R. (2019). Carbon Majors: Update of Top Twenty companies 1965-2017 (Issue October). Climate Accountability Institute. PressRelease Top20 Oct19.pdf
  • IEA. (2021). Global Energy Review: CO2 Emissions in 2020.
  • IEA. (2023a). Net Zero Roadmap: A Global Pathway to Keep the 1.5 °C Goal in Reach 2023 Update.
  • IEA. (2023b). Saudi Arabia.
  • IMF. (2023). IMF Fossil Fuel Subsidies Data: 2023 Update.
  • IPCC. (2018). Summary for Policymakers. In V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P. R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J. B. R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M. I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, & T. Waterfield (Eds.), Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, (Issue October 2018). IPCC.
  • IRENA. (2023a). Energy profile - Saudi Arabia.
  • IRENA. (2023b). Renewable capacity statistics 2023.
  • KAPSARC. (2021). Saudi Arabia | Energy Policy Solutions.
  • KAPSARC. (2023a). Baseline Forecasts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Saudi Arabia Using the Structural Time Series Model and Autometrics (Issue May).
  • KAPSARC. (2023b). Saudi Arabia’s Potential to Further Hydrogen Use in the Maritime Sector.
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2016). Vision 2030.
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2021a). Reducing Emissions - Saudi Green Initiative.
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2021b). Updated First Nationally Determined Contributions. NDC 2021.pdf
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2021c). Vision 2030.
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2021d, October 23). Press release: His Royal Highness the Crown Prince announces the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s aims to achieve net zero emissions by 2060. Saudi Green Initiative.
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2022). Saudi Arabia, Fourth National Communication. Arabia-NC4-1-Fourth National Communication NC4 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia March 2022.pdf
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2023). Saudi & Middle East Green Initiative: SGI target: reduce carbon emissions by 278 mtpa by 2030.
  • KMPG. (2023). Saudi Arabia budget report 2023.
  • Luomi, M., Yılmaz, F., Alshehri, T., & Howarth, N. (2021). The Circular Carbon Economy Index – Methodological Approach and Conceptual Framework.
  • National Renewable Energy Program. (2018). Saudi Arabia Renewable Energy Targets and Long Term Visibility.
  • NBER. (2018, January 1). Limits on OPEC Output Increase Global Oil Production Costs. National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Oxford Business Group. (2020). Saudi Arabia moving ahead with local and regional rail integration. In The Report: Saudi Arabia 2020.
  • Parry, I. W. H., Black, S., & Vernon, N. (2021). Still Not Getting Energy Prices Right: A Global and Country Update of Fossil Fuel Subsidies (2021/236).
  • Railway Technology. (2023). Riyadh Metro, Saudi Arabia.
  • RE Global. (2023). Transmission Ties: Saudi Arabia’s regional connections.
  • Reuters. (2023). Saudi Arabia signs $5.6 billion deal with Chinese EV company.
  • Saudi Energy Efficiency Center. (2022). Annual report 2022.
  • Saudi Gazette. (2020, July 7). Riyadh Metro to open partially by end of year. Saudi Gazette.
  • SPA. (2020, May 11). GAZT: VAT of 15% Goes into Effect in July, 2020. Saudi Press Agency.
  • Taylor, M., & Watts, J. (2019, October 9). Revealed: the 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions. The Guardian.
  • The CCUS hub. (2023). Aramco Jubail.
  • UNFCCC. (2020). National Inventory Submissions 2020. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • World Bank. (2023). Forest area (% of land area) - Saudi Arabia.
  • World Nuclear Association. (2022). Nuclear power in Saudi Arabia.

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