Saudi Arabia

Overall rating
Highly insufficient

Policies and action
against modelled domestic pathways

< 3°C World

NDC target
against modelled domestic pathways

Highly insufficient
< 4°C World

NDC target
against fair share

Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Climate finance
Not assessed
Net zero target



Comprehensiveness not rated as

Information incomplete
Land use & forestry
Not significant


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  • Arab News. (2021, January 30). Riyadh Commission to launch metro in Q3 2021: CEO | Arab News.
  • Barbuscia, D. (2019, February 11). Saudi Arabia would need oil at $80-$85 a barrel to balance budget: IMF official. Reuters.
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  • Kalin, S. (2018, September 25). Saudi Arabia opens high-speed train linking Islam’s holiest cities. Reuters.
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  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2016). Vision 2030.
  • KPMG. (2020). Saudi Arabia Budget Report 2021: A review of the Saudi Arabia 2021 budget in the context of recent economic developments.
  • Luomi, M., Yılmaz, F., Alshehri, T., & Howarth, N. (2021). The Circular Carbon Economy Index – Methodological Approach and Conceptual Framework.
  • ME Utilities. (2020). Saudi Arabia, Jordan sign agreement for 164 km power interconnection project. Middle East Utilities.
  • National Renewable Energy Program. (2018). Saudi Arabia Renewable Energy Targets and Long Term Visibility.
  • NBER. (2018, January 1). Limits on OPEC Output Increase Global Oil Production Costs. National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Oxford Business Group. (2020). Saudi Arabia moving ahead with local and regional rail integration. In The Report: Saudi Arabia 2020.
  • Parnell, J. (2020, July 7). World’s Largest Green Hydrogen Project Unveiled in Saudi Arabia. Green Tech Media.
  • Saudi Gazette. (2020a, July 1). Riyadh public bus transport project starts operation later this year. Saudi Gazette.
  • Saudi Gazette. (2020b, July 7). Riyadh Metro to open partially by end of year. Saudi Gazette.
  • Saudi Gazette. (2021, September 8). Lucid to start manufacturing electric cars in Saudi Arabia in 2024 - Saudi Gazette.
  • SGI. (2021, October 23). Press release: His Royal Highness the Crown Prince announces the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s aims to achieve net zero emissions by 2060. Saudi Green Initiative.
  • SPA. (2020, May 11). GAZT: VAT of 15% Goes into Effect in July, 2020. Saudi Press Agency.
  • Taylor, M., & Watts, J. (2019, October 9). Revealed: the 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions. The Guardian.
  • Time. (2021, October 6). At $2 Trillion, Aramco Races Apple for Most Valuable Company | Time. Time Magazine.
  • UNFCCC. (2020). National Inventory Submissions 2020. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • World Bank. (2021). World Bank Open Data.

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