Last updated 09.11.2021
The urgent need for nuanced and transparent assessments of national net zero targets
As of 2 November 2021, over 140 countries had announced or are considering net zero targets, covering 90% of global emissions (Figure 1), compared to the 130 countries, covering about 70% emissions, in May 2021.
India is the most recent major emitter to announce a net zero goal. Together with China, the EU, and USA, these four countries represent more than half of global greenhouse gas emissions. Even countries with a poor track record in fighting climate change, such as Australia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and the UAE, have felt obliged to also commit to net zero emissions.
Figure 1: Share of GHG emissions covered by countries that have adopted or announced net zero emission targets (agreed in law, as part of an initiative, or under discussion). Compilation based on ECIU (2021) as of 09.11.2021 complemented by CAT analysis. Emissions data for 2017 taken from EDGAR emissions database (EDGAR, 2019).
At their best, well-designed and ambitious net zero targets are key for reducing global carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions to net zero around 2050 and 2070, respectively. This is necessary to keep to the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C temperature limit. Ambitious net zero targets can also guide the implementation of Paris-aligned actions in the short and medium term, in particular 2030 emission reduction goals.
At their worst, net zero targets are unclear or not backed up by real-world action. Net zero targets can distract from the urgent need for deep emissions reductions if 2030 targets and short-term action are inconsistent with their achievement, allowing governments to “hide” behind aspirational net zero targets. Unless governments start acting now, their chances of achieving net zero will be slim.
There is a clear need for a nuanced assessment of incoming national net zero targets to understand their scope, architecture, and transparency. Without such scrutiny, there is a risk that poorly backed up net zero claims could render these targets meaningless.
Ten-step net zero target evaluation methodology
The CAT has identified ten key elements of each country’s net zero target to assess whether the scope, architecture, and transparency meet what we define as good practice (see Figure 2). Our evaluation method remains exclusively applicable to net zero targets by national governments and cannot be directly applied to other subnational or non-state actors (especially corporations).
Figure 2: Identified good practice for all ten key elements in the Climate Action Tracker’s evaluation methodology for countries’ net zero targets.
Country evaluations as of November 2021
Our net zero evaluations for G20 countries and selected other countries as of November 2021 shows that most net zero targets are formulated vaguely and do not yet conform with good practice across different design elements. Robust short-term targets and pathways towards achieving them will be required to fully realise their ambition.
These evaluations aim to provide a nuanced assessment of national net zero targets to understand their scope, architecture, and transparency. Without such scrutiny, there is a risk that poorly backed up net zero claims could render these targets meaningless
Table 1: Overview of Climate Action Tracker’s net zero target evaluations for G20 member countries (excluding France and Italy as both not separately analysed by the CAT) and selected other countries per key elements as of November 2021
Governments need to improve their net zero target design. In total, according to the CAT’s “good practice” net zero analysis, the design of net zero targets covering a total of 73% of global emissions remains insufficient (Figure 8). Only four of the 40 countries covered by the CAT, responsible for 6% of global GHG emissions, have defined their net zero targets in an ‘acceptable’ way in terms of scope, architecture, and transparency. Another four countries, responsible for 17% of global emissions, fall into the ‘average’ category.
Figure 3: Share of global GHG emissions by Climate Action Tracker’s headline evaluation for announced net zero targets as of November 2021. Emissions data for 2017 taken from EDGAR emissions database (EDGAR, 2019).