South Africa

Overall rating

Policies and action
against modelled domestic pathways

< 3°C World

NDC target
against modelled domestic pathways

Almost Sufficient
< 2°C World

NDC target
against fair share

< 3°C World
Climate finance
Not applicable
Net zero target



Comprehensiveness not rated as

Information incomplete
Land use & forestry
Not significant


  • Arnoldi, M. (2020, July 10). Majority of IPPs said to agree to refinancing initiative. Engineering News.
  • Bosch, J. M., & von Gadow, K. (1990). Regulating Afforestation for Water Conservation in South Africa. South African Forestry Journal, 153(1), 41–54.
  • Burkhardt, P. (2022, July 1). South Africa Nears a Record Year of Power Outages, Six Months In. Bloomberg.
  • Climate Action Tracker. (2018). Climate Action Tracker Data Portal.
  • Climate Action Tracker. (2020). A government roadmap for addressing the climate and post COVID-19 economic crises.
  • Climate Home News. (2019). South Africa set to introduce long-awaited carbon tax in June. [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • Creamer, T. (2020a, June 23). Next renewables bidding round to be launched only in second quarter of 2021. Engineering News.
  • Creamer, T. (2020b, July 21). Bid documentation for 2 000 MW of emergency power by ‘end July, early August.’ Engineering News.
  • Creamer, T. (2022a, June 2). Mantashe confirms IRP 2019 review, but offers no timing specifics. Engineering News.
  • Creamer, T. (2022b, September 2). Draft regulations removing licensing cap for distributed generators released for comment. Engineering News2.
  • Department of Energy. (2011). Integrated Resource Plan for Electricity 2010-2030. files/IRP2010_2030_Final_Report_20110325.pdf
  • Department of Energy. (2016). Draft Post-2015 National Energy Efficiency Strategy. In Government Gazette (Issue 40515). [accessed on 30 August 2017]
  • Department of Energy. (2019). Integrated Resource Plan (IRP2019).
  • Department of Environment Foresty and Fisheries. (2021). National GHG inventory report South Africa 2000 - 2017. (accessed on 13-10-2021)
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2014). South Africa’s Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential Analysis - Annex G: AFOLU sector.
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2016). Draft GHG National Inventory Report - South Africa: 2000-2012. [accessed on 21 February 2018]
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2017). South Africa’s 2nd Biennial Update Report (Issue December).
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2018). An analysis of projected greenhouse gas emissions pathways (Issue March).
  • Department of Environmental Affairs of South Africa. (2014). GHG Inventory for South Africa.
  • Department of Environmental Affairs Republic of South Africa. (2011). Explanatory note: Defining South Africa’s Peak, Plateau and Decline Greenhouse Gas Emission Trajectory. SA Government Position on Climate Change.
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2020). Regulations for the mandatory display and submission of energy performance certificates for buildings. (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2021a). Department of Mineral Resources and Energy announces three additional Preferred Bidders under the Risk Mitigation Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (RMIPPP). Statement - RMIPPP Announcement of 3 Additional Preferred Bidders 1 Jun 2021.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2021b). REIPPP Bid Window 5 - Bids Received on 16 August 2021. BW5 - Bids Received on 16 August 2021.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2021c). Risk Mitigation Independent Power Procurement Programme Preferred Bidders. Preferred Bidders.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Trade Industry & Competition. (2021). Auto Green Paper on the Advancement of New Energy Vehicles in South Africa (Public Consultation Version). (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Transport. (2017a). Bus Rapid Transit System (BRT). [accessed on 23 November 2017]
  • Department of Transport. (2017b). Green Transport Strategy 2017-2050 - Draft. [accessed on 23 November 2017]
  • Department of Transport South Africa. (2018). Green Transport Strategy for South Africa: (2018-2050).
  • Eberhard, A. (2020, June 17). New coal and nuclear power proposals undermine prospects of a post-Covid-19 economic recovery. Daily Maverick. [accessed on 25 Aug 2020]
  • Eberhard, A. (2021a, October 1). South Africa’s Risk Mitigation IPP emergency procurement is unlikely to deliver power within 6 years of its initial conception. Twitter. (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Eberhard, A. (2021b, October 3). South Africa’s troubled power utility is being reset: Eskom CEO André de Ruyter explains how. Daily Maverick.
  • EY. (2017). South Africa publishes Second Draft Carbon Tax Bill for public comment. [accessed on 20 February 2018]
  • EY. (2018). South Africa’s Carbon Tax to be effective 1 June 2019 and administered through Customs & Excise Act. [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • FAOSTAT. (2017). FAOSTAT statistical databases. Updated 28 September, 2017. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • Farand, C. (2021, November 4). South Africa $8.5bn finance package offers a model for ending reliance on coal. Climate Home News.
  • GBCSA. (2017). Green Building Council South Africa.
  • Global Recovery Observatory. (2021). Green Recovery Spending by Country - South Africa.
  • Government of South Africa. (2010). South Africa’s Copenhagen Accord pledge. [accessed on 16 October 2017]
  • Government of South Africa. (2011). National Climate Change Response White Paper. [accessed on 24 October 2017]
  • Government of South Africa. (2016). Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Africa First/South Africa.pdf [accessed on 23 August 2017]
  • Government of South Africa. (2021a). Building a new economy - Highlights of the Reconstruction and Recovery Plan. (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021b). President Cyril Ramaphosa on amendment to Schedule Two of the Electricity Regulation Act. (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021c). Proposed updated Nationally Determined Contribution: South Africa’s First Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Agreement Updated in 2021 (Issue September). (accessed on 6 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021d). Statement on virtual Cabinet Meeting of 14 September 2021. Government Communication andInformation System, Republic of South Africa. (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021e, November 2). Presidency on international partnership to support a just transition to a low carbon economy and a climate resilient society. Media Statement.
  • Government of South Africa. (2022a). Climate Change Bill [B 9—2022] (Issue 45299). Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment.
  • Government of South Africa. (2022b, September 1). Statement on the virtual Cabinet Meeting of 31 August 2022.
  • Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. (2017). Country Profile South Africa.
  • Gütschow, J., & Pflüger, M. (2022). The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series (1750-2021) v2.4. Zenodo.
  • IEA/IMF. (2020). Sustainable Recovery - World Energy Outlook Special Report. International Energy Agency (IEA).
  • IEA. (2017). Energy Statistics and Balances. 2017 Edition.
  • IEA. (2020). World Energy Outlook 2020 .
  • IMF. (2020). World Economic Outlook Update (June 2020).
  • IMF. (2022). World Economic Outlook (April 2022).
  • Ireland, G., & Burton, J. (2018). An assessment of new coal plants in South Africa’s electricity future: The cost, emissions, and supply security implications of the coal IPP programme. [accessed on 2 July 2018]
  • IRENA. (2022). Renewable Capacity Statistics 2022.
  • KPMG. (2019). Carbon Tax: A Burning Issue (Issue February). [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • KPMG. (2022). Carbon Tax – a surprise extension to Phase 1.
  • Kuhudzai, R. J. (2020, April 10). Electric Vehicles In South Africa: Where Are We Now? CleanTechnica. [accessed on 25 Aug 2020]
  • Marquard, A., Hartley, F., Merven, B., Burton, J., Hughes, A., Ireland, G., Schers, J., Dane, A., Cohen, B., Winkler, H., McGregor, J., Stevens, L., Masenda, J., Charitar, D., Mc Call, B., Blottnitz, H. Von, & Ahjum, F. (2021). Technical Analysis to support the update of South Africa’s First NDC’s mitigation target ranges (Issue April). Energy Systems Research Group (ESRG) of the University of Cape Town.
  • National Planning Commission. (2012). National Development Plan.
  • National Treasury of South Africa. (2021). Budget 2021 Review. Budget/2021/review/FullBR.pdf#page=114 (accessed on 13-10-2021)
  • Nciizah, A. D., & Wakindiki, I. I. C. (2015). Climate Smart Agriculture: Achievements and Prospects in Africa. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 03(06), 99–105.
  • Nhede, N. (2022, April 19). South Africa Officially Opens Bid Window 6 of the REIPPP. Energy Capital and Power.
  • Paton, C. (2018, September 4). Two new coal plants will have minimal effect on electricity cost, says energy department. BusinessDay.
  • Presidential Climate Commission. (2022). A Framework for a Just Transition in South Africa.
  • Presidential Climate Finance Task Team & International Partners Group. (2022). Six-months update on progress in advancing the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP).
  • Ramaphosa, C. (2022). Address by President Cyril Ramaphosa on actions to address the electricity crisis, Union Buildings, Tshwane. Government of South Africa.,-union-buildings,-tshwane
  • Reporter, A. (2018). These are the 8 members of Ramaphosa’s Eskom task team. ILO.
  • Climate Change Bill, 2018: For public comment, Pub. L. No. 41689, Government Gazette (2018). [accessed on 28 June 2018]
  • Republic of South Africa. (2020). South Africa’s Low-Emission Development Strategy 2050.
  • Reuters. (2019). South African parliament approves long-delayed carbon tax bill. [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • Roff, A., Steyn, G., Tyler, E., Renaud, C., Brand, R., & Burton, J. (2020). A vital ambition - Determining the additional CO2 emission mitigation in the South African electricity system (Issue July). [accessed on 3 August 2020]
  • Smith, T. (2021, May 14). Energy efficiency rated buildings have two years to comply in SA. ESI Africa.
  • Steenkamp, L.-A. (2022, February 25). South Africa’s carbon tax rate goes up but emitters get more time to clean up. The Conversation.
  • Sustainable Energy Africa. (2017). Sustainable energy solutions for South African local government A practical guide.
  • Szabo, M. (2021, February 5). South African carbon tax could be too low, too limited to cut emissions. Carbon Pulse.
  • UNFCCC. (2019). GHG Emission Data Portal. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • US EPA. (2019). Global non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Projections & Mitigation.
  • Winkler, H. (2007). Long Term Mitigation Scenarios: Technical Report. In Strategic Options for South Africa (Issue October).
  • World Green Building Council. (2016a). World Green Building Trends.
  • World Green Building Council. (2016b). World Green Building Trends.
  • Wright, J., & Calitz, J. (2020). Technical Report - Systems analysis to support increasingly ambitious CO 2 emissions scenarios in the South African electricity system (Issue July). [accessed on 3 August 2020]
  • WWF. (2020, February 19). New biofuels regulatory framework falls short.

Latest publications

Stay informed

Subscribe to our newsletter