South Africa

Overall rating
Insufficient
Policies & action
Insufficient
< 3°C World
Internationally supported target
Almost Sufficient
< 2°C World
Fair share target
Insufficient
< 3°C World
Climate finance
Not applicable
Net zero target

year

2050

Comprehensiveness not rated as

Information incomplete
Land use & forestry
Not significant

References

  • Arnoldi, M. (2020, July 10). Majority of IPPs said to agree to refinancing initiative. Engineering News. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/majority-of-ipps-said-to-agree-to-refinancing-initiative-2020-07-10
  • Bosch, J. M., & von Gadow, K. (1990). Regulating Afforestation for Water Conservation in South Africa. South African Forestry Journal, 153(1), 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/00382167.1990.9629032
  • Burkhardt, P. (2022, July 1). South Africa Nears a Record Year of Power Outages, Six Months In. Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-07-01/south-africa-nears-a-record-year-of-power-outages-six-months-in#xj4y7vzkg
  • Climate Action Tracker. (2018). Climate Action Tracker Data Portal.
  • Climate Action Tracker. (2020). A government roadmap for addressing the climate and post COVID-19 economic crises. https://climateactiontracker.org/documents/706/CAT_2020-04-27_Briefing_COVID19_Apr2020.pdf
  • Climate Home News. (2019). South Africa set to introduce long-awaited carbon tax in June. https://www.climatechangenews.com/2019/02/20/south-africa-set-introduce-long-awaited-carbon-tax-june/ [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • Creamer, T. (2020a, June 23). Next renewables bidding round to be launched only in second quarter of 2021. Engineering News. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/next-renewables-bidding-round-to-be-launched-only-in-second-quarter-of-2021-2020-06-23
  • Creamer, T. (2020b, July 21). Bid documentation for 2 000 MW of emergency power by ‘end July, early August.’ Engineering News. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/dmre-2020-07-21
  • Creamer, T. (2022a, June 2). Mantashe confirms IRP 2019 review, but offers no timing specifics. Engineering News. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/mantashe-confirms-irp-2019-review-but-offers-no-timing-specifics-2022-06-02
  • Creamer, T. (2022b, September 2). Draft regulations removing licensing cap for distributed generators released for comment. Engineering News2. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/draft-regulations-removing-licensing-cap-for-distributed-generators-released-for-comment-2022-09-02/rep_id:4136
  • Department of Energy. (2011). Integrated Resource Plan for Electricity 2010-2030. http://www.energy.gov.za/IRP/irp files/IRP2010_2030_Final_Report_20110325.pdf
  • Department of Energy. (2016). Draft Post-2015 National Energy Efficiency Strategy. In Government Gazette (Issue 40515). https://cer.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/National-Energy-Efficiency-Strategy.pdf [accessed on 30 August 2017]
  • Department of Energy. (2019). Integrated Resource Plan (IRP2019). https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/201910/42778gon1359.pdf
  • Department of Environment Foresty and Fisheries. (2021). National GHG inventory report South Africa 2000 - 2017. https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/nir-2017-report.pdf (accessed on 13-10-2021)
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2014). South Africa’s Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential Analysis - Annex G: AFOLU sector.
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2016). Draft GHG National Inventory Report - South Africa: 2000-2012. https://cer.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Draft-GHG-Inventory-Report-SA.pdf [accessed on 21 February 2018]
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2017). South Africa’s 2nd Biennial Update Report (Issue December).
  • Department of Environmental Affairs. (2018). An analysis of projected greenhouse gas emissions pathways (Issue March).
  • Department of Environmental Affairs of South Africa. (2014). GHG Inventory for South Africa. https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/greenhousegas_invetorysouthafrica.pdf
  • Department of Environmental Affairs Republic of South Africa. (2011). Explanatory note: Defining South Africa’s Peak, Plateau and Decline Greenhouse Gas Emission Trajectory. SA Government Position on Climate Change. http://www.climateaction.org.za/cop17-cmp7/sa-government-position-on-climate-change
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2020). Regulations for the mandatory display and submission of energy performance certificates for buildings. https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/202012/43972gon700.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2021a). Department of Mineral Resources and Energy announces three additional Preferred Bidders under the Risk Mitigation Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (RMIPPP). https://ipp-projects.co.za/PressCentre/GetPressRelease?fileid=56cb1c33-b0c3-eb11-954b-2c59e59ac9cd&fileName=Media Statement - RMIPPP Announcement of 3 Additional Preferred Bidders 1 Jun 2021.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2021b). REIPPP Bid Window 5 - Bids Received on 16 August 2021. https://www.ipp-renewables.co.za/PressCentre/GetPressRelease?fileid=5e81b7bf-5400-ec11-954d-2c59e59ac9cd&fileName=REIPPPP BW5 - Bids Received on 16 August 2021.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. (2021c). Risk Mitigation Independent Power Procurement Programme Preferred Bidders. https://ipp-projects.co.za/PressCentre/GetPressRelease?fileid=99efd67c-849b-eb11-952f-2c59e59ac9cd&fileName=RMIPPPP Preferred Bidders.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Trade Industry & Competition. (2021). Auto Green Paper on the Advancement of New Energy Vehicles in South Africa (Public Consultation Version). http://www.thedtic.gov.za/wp-content/uploads/EV_Green_Paper.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Department of Transport. (2017a). Bus Rapid Transit System (BRT). https://www.gov.za/about-government/government-programmes/bus-rapid-transit-system-brt [accessed on 23 November 2017]
  • Department of Transport. (2017b). Green Transport Strategy 2017-2050 - Draft. https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/201708/41064gon886.pdf [accessed on 23 November 2017]
  • Department of Transport South Africa. (2018). Green Transport Strategy for South Africa: (2018-2050). https://www.transport.gov.za/documents/11623/89294/Green_Transport_Strategy_2018_2050_onlineversion.pdf/71e19f1d-259e-4c55-9b27-30db418f105a
  • Eberhard, A. (2020, June 17). New coal and nuclear power proposals undermine prospects of a post-Covid-19 economic recovery. Daily Maverick. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-06-17-new-coal-and-nuclear-power-proposals-undermine-prospects-of-a-post-covid-19-economic-recovery/?utm_campaign=snd-autopilot [accessed on 25 Aug 2020]
  • Eberhard, A. (2021a, October 1). South Africa’s Risk Mitigation IPP emergency procurement is unlikely to deliver power within 6 years of its initial conception. Twitter. https://twitter.com/AntonEberhard/status/1443927599223296000 (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Eberhard, A. (2021b, October 3). South Africa’s troubled power utility is being reset: Eskom CEO André de Ruyter explains how. Daily Maverick. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2021-10-03-south-africas-troubled-power-utility-is-being-reset-eskom-ceo-andre-de-ruyter-explains-how/
  • EY. (2017). South Africa publishes Second Draft Carbon Tax Bill for public comment. http://www.ey.com/gl/en/services/tax/international-tax/alert--south-africa-publishes-second-draft-carbon-tax-bill-for-public-comment [accessed on 20 February 2018]
  • EY. (2018). South Africa’s Carbon Tax to be effective 1 June 2019 and administered through Customs & Excise Act. https://www.ey.com/gl/en/services/tax/international-tax/alert--south-africas-carbon-tax-to-be-effective-1-june-2019-and-administered-through-customs-and-excise-act [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • FAOSTAT. (2017). FAOSTAT statistical databases. Updated 28 September, 2017. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/
  • Farand, C. (2021, November 4). South Africa $8.5bn finance package offers a model for ending reliance on coal. Climate Home News. https://www.climatechangenews.com/2021/11/04/south-africa-8-5bn-finance-package-offers-model-ending-reliance-coal/
  • GBCSA. (2017). Green Building Council South Africa. https://www.gbcsa.org.za
  • Global Recovery Observatory. (2021). Green Recovery Spending by Country - South Africa. https://recovery.smithschool.ox.ac.uk/tracking/
  • Government of South Africa. (2010). South Africa’s Copenhagen Accord pledge. http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop_15/copenhagen_accord/application/pdf/southafricacphaccord_app2.pdf [accessed on 16 October 2017]
  • Government of South Africa. (2011). National Climate Change Response White Paper. https://www.sanbi.org/sites/default/files/documents/documents/national-climate-change-response-white-paper.pdf [accessed on 24 October 2017]
  • Government of South Africa. (2016). Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). http://www4.unfccc.int/ndcregistry/PublishedDocuments/South Africa First/South Africa.pdf [accessed on 23 August 2017]
  • Government of South Africa. (2021a). Building a new economy - Highlights of the Reconstruction and Recovery Plan. https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/202010/building-new-economy-highlights-reconstruction-and-recovery-plan.pdf (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021b). President Cyril Ramaphosa on amendment to Schedule Two of the Electricity Regulation Act. https://www.gov.za/speeches/president-cyril-ramaphosa-amendment-schedule-two-electricity-regulation-act-10-jun-2021-0 (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021c). Proposed updated Nationally Determined Contribution: South Africa’s First Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Agreement Updated in 2021 (Issue September). https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/reports/draftnationalydeterminedcontributions_2021updated.pdf (accessed on 6 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021d). Statement on virtual Cabinet Meeting of 14 September 2021. Government Communication andInformation System, Republic of South Africa. https://www.gcis.gov.za/newsroom/media-releases/statement-virtual-cabinet-meeting-14-september-2021 (accessed on 13 October 2021)
  • Government of South Africa. (2021e, November 2). Presidency on international partnership to support a just transition to a low carbon economy and a climate resilient society. Media Statement. https://www.gov.za/speeches/presidency-international-partnership-support-just-transition-2-nov-2021-0000
  • Government of South Africa. (2022a). Climate Change Bill [B 9—2022] (Issue 45299). Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment. https://www.parliament.gov.za/storage/app/media/Bills/2022/B9_2022_Climate_Change_Bill/B9_2022_Climate_Change_Bill.pdf
  • Government of South Africa. (2022b, September 1). Statement on the virtual Cabinet Meeting of 31 August 2022. https://www.gov.za/speeches/statement-virtual-cabinet-meeting-31-august-2022-1-sep-2022-0000
  • Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. (2017). Country Profile South Africa. http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/country-profiles/south-africa/
  • Gütschow, J., & Pflüger, M. (2022). The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series (1750-2021) v2.4. Zenodo. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7179775
  • IEA/IMF. (2020). Sustainable Recovery - World Energy Outlook Special Report. International Energy Agency (IEA). https://www.iea.org/reports/sustainable-recovery
  • IEA. (2017). Energy Statistics and Balances. 2017 Edition.
  • IEA. (2020). World Energy Outlook 2020 . https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2020
  • IMF. (2020). World Economic Outlook Update (June 2020). https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/06/24/WEOUpdateJune2020
  • IMF. (2022). World Economic Outlook (April 2022). https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2022/04/19/world-economic-outlook-april-2022
  • Ireland, G., & Burton, J. (2018). An assessment of new coal plants in South Africa’s electricity future: The cost, emissions, and supply security implications of the coal IPP programme. http://thegreentimes.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Assessment-of-South-Africa-coal-plants.pdf [accessed on 2 July 2018]
  • IRENA. (2022). Renewable Capacity Statistics 2022. https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2022/Apr/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2022.pdf
  • KPMG. (2019). Carbon Tax: A Burning Issue (Issue February). https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/xx/pdf/2019/02/tnf-south-africa-feb25-2019.pdf [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • KPMG. (2022). Carbon Tax – a surprise extension to Phase 1. https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/us/pdf/2022/02/tnf-south-africa-feb25-2022.pdf
  • Kuhudzai, R. J. (2020, April 10). Electric Vehicles In South Africa: Where Are We Now? CleanTechnica. https://cleantechnica.com/2020/04/10/electric-vehicles-in-south-africa-where-are-we-now/ [accessed on 25 Aug 2020]
  • Marquard, A., Hartley, F., Merven, B., Burton, J., Hughes, A., Ireland, G., Schers, J., Dane, A., Cohen, B., Winkler, H., McGregor, J., Stevens, L., Masenda, J., Charitar, D., Mc Call, B., Blottnitz, H. Von, & Ahjum, F. (2021). Technical Analysis to support the update of South Africa’s First NDC’s mitigation target ranges (Issue April). Energy Systems Research Group (ESRG) of the University of Cape Town. https://zivahub.uct.ac.za/ndownloader/files/31646120
  • National Planning Commission. (2012). National Development Plan. https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/201409/ndp-2030-our-future-make-it-workr.pdf
  • National Treasury of South Africa. (2021). Budget 2021 Review. http://www.treasury.gov.za/documents/National Budget/2021/review/FullBR.pdf#page=114 (accessed on 13-10-2021)
  • Nciizah, A. D., & Wakindiki, I. I. C. (2015). Climate Smart Agriculture: Achievements and Prospects in Africa. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 03(06), 99–105. https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2015.36016
  • Nhede, N. (2022, April 19). South Africa Officially Opens Bid Window 6 of the REIPPP. Energy Capital and Power. https://energycapitalpower.com/south-africa-officially-opens-bid-window-6-of-the-reippp/
  • Paton, C. (2018, September 4). Two new coal plants will have minimal effect on electricity cost, says energy department. BusinessDay. https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/national/2018-09-04-two-new-coal-plants-will-have-minimal-effect-on-electricity-cost-says-energy-department/
  • Presidential Climate Commission. (2022). A Framework for a Just Transition in South Africa. https://pccommissionflow.imgix.net/uploads/images/A-Just-Transition-Framework-for-South-Africa-2022.pdf
  • Presidential Climate Finance Task Team & International Partners Group. (2022). Six-months update on progress in advancing the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP). https://ukcop26.org/six-month-update-on-progress-in-advancing-the-just-energy-transition-partnership-jetp/
  • Ramaphosa, C. (2022). Address by President Cyril Ramaphosa on actions to address the electricity crisis, Union Buildings, Tshwane. Government of South Africa. https://www.thepresidency.gov.za/speeches/address-president-cyril-ramaphosa-actions-address-electricity-crisis,-union-buildings,-tshwane
  • Reporter, A. (2018). These are the 8 members of Ramaphosa’s Eskom task team. ILO.
  • Climate Change Bill, 2018: For public comment, Pub. L. No. 41689, Government Gazette (2018). https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/legislations/climatechangebill2018_gn41689.pdf [accessed on 28 June 2018]
  • Republic of South Africa. (2020). South Africa’s Low-Emission Development Strategy 2050. https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/2020lowemission_developmentstrategy.pdf
  • Reuters. (2019). South African parliament approves long-delayed carbon tax bill. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-safrica-carbontax/south-african-parliament-approves-long-delayed-carbon-tax-bill-idUSKCN1Q81U8 [accessed on 25 April 2019]
  • Roff, A., Steyn, G., Tyler, E., Renaud, C., Brand, R., & Burton, J. (2020). A vital ambition - Determining the additional CO2 emission mitigation in the South African electricity system (Issue July). https://meridianeconomics.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Ambition.pdf [accessed on 3 August 2020]
  • Smith, T. (2021, May 14). Energy efficiency rated buildings have two years to comply in SA. ESI Africa. https://www.esi-africa.com/industry-sectors/energy-efficiency/energy-efficiency-rated-buildings-have-two-years-to-comply-in-sa/
  • Steenkamp, L.-A. (2022, February 25). South Africa’s carbon tax rate goes up but emitters get more time to clean up. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/south-africas-carbon-tax-rate-goes-up-but-emitters-get-more-time-to-clean-up-177834
  • Sustainable Energy Africa. (2017). Sustainable energy solutions for South African local government A practical guide.
  • Szabo, M. (2021, February 5). South African carbon tax could be too low, too limited to cut emissions. Carbon Pulse. https://carbon-pulse.com/120970/
  • UNFCCC. (2019). GHG Emission Data Portal. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. http://di.unfccc.int/
  • US EPA. (2019). Global non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Projections & Mitigation.
  • Winkler, H. (2007). Long Term Mitigation Scenarios: Technical Report. In Strategic Options for South Africa (Issue October). https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/item/19443/Winkler_Long_Term_Mitigation_2007.pdf?sequence=1
  • World Green Building Council. (2016a). World Green Building Trends.
  • World Green Building Council. (2016b). World Green Building Trends. http://www.worldgbc.org/files/8613/6295/6420/World_Green_Building_Trends_SmartMarket_Report_2013.pdf
  • Wright, J., & Calitz, J. (2020). Technical Report - Systems analysis to support increasingly ambitious CO 2 emissions scenarios in the South African electricity system (Issue July). https://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/bitstream/handle/10204/11483/Wright_2020_edited.pdf?sequence=7&isAllowed=y [accessed on 3 August 2020]
  • WWF. (2020, February 19). New biofuels regulatory framework falls short. https://www.wwf.org.za/our_news/news/?30981/New-biofuels-regulatory-framework-falls-short

Latest publications

Stay informed

Subscribe to our newsletter