Argentina

Critically Insufficient4°C+
World
NDCs with this rating fall well outside of a country’s “fair share” range and are not at all consistent with holding warming to below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would exceed 4°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming of greater than 4°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
Highly insufficient< 4°C
World
NDCs with this rating fall outside of a country’s “fair share” range and are not at all consistent with holding warming to below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would reach between 3°C and 4°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming between 3°C and 4°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
Insufficient< 3°C
World
NDCs with this rating are in the least stringent part of a country’s “fair share” range and not consistent with holding warming below 2°C let alone with the Paris Agreement’s stronger 1.5°C limit. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming would reach over 2°C and up to 3°C. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with warming over 2°C and up to 3°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
2°C Compatible< 2°C
World
NDCs with this rating are consistent with the 2009 Copenhagen 2°C goal and therefore fall within a country’s “fair share” range, but are not fully consistent with the Paris Agreement long term temperature goal. If all government NDCs were in this range, warming could be held below, but not well below, 2°C and still be too high to be consistent with the Paris Agreement 1.5°C limit. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with holding warming below, but not well below, 2°C if all other sectors were to follow the same approach.
1.5°C Paris Agreement Compatible< 1.5°C
World
This rating indicates that a government’s NDCs in the most stringent part of its “fair share” range: it is consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit. For sectors, the rating indicates that the target is consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit.
Role model<< 1.5°C
World
This rating indicates that a government’s NDC is more ambitious than what is considered a “fair” contribution: it is more than consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit. No “role model” rating has been developed for the sectors.

Historical emissions

Historical emissions for 1990–2016 were taken from the national GHG inventory (Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, 2020). The inventory provides numbers in CO2-equivalent calculated with GWP from the Second Assessment Report (SAR). We recalculated CH4 and N2O emissions using GWP from AR4. For F-gases the original values were kept, except for sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The inventory data is also used in the Third Biennial Report.

NDC and other targets

NDC absolute emissions levels including LULUCF are provided directly in the NDC for the unconditional and conditional targets (Government of Argentina, 2016a). To distinguish LULUCF emissions from total GHG emissions and calculate its ratings, the CAT assumes that the mitigation efforts will be proportional to the sector's relevance in terms of emissions contribution, thus maintaining the share of each sector's emissions similar across the years until 2030. This assumption is in line with the information provided by the Ministry of Environment on the expected shares of emissions of each sector in the present and until 2030 (Ministry of Environment of Argentina, 2016). We also recalculate the target, that is originally communicated as an absolute number calculated using SAR GWP, to AR4 GWP. To do so, we apply the growth rate between 2016 and 2030 that the original target implies to inventory data in AR4 GWP.

Current policy projections

In contrast to the current policy projections in the last assessment where the scenario range came from using two different external scenario projections (i.e. projections developed by National University of Buenos Aires (UNICEN) and from the mitigation scenarios prepared for the 3rd National Communication (Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development, 2015)), the current policy projections range in this update comes from using two different GDP projections to account for the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The pre-COVID-19 current policy projection, to which our assessment of the impacts of the pandemic were added, was done as follows:

  • Energy sector projections developed by National University of Buenos Aires (UNICEN), in the report “Current situation and GHG emissions projections in Argentina” (Keesler, Orifici and Blanco, 2019). The document covers all energy related emissions under implemented policies until 2018. The baseline scenario has the following assumptions:
    • Accounts for the penetration of renewable energy in the power sector following the current trend;
    • Adjusts the emissions curve of the power sector to capture the current development of nuclear energy;
    • Accounts for barriers in the implementation of energy efficiency measures presented in the sectoral plans (buildings, industry, and transport);
    • Takes into account the significant development plan for the exploration and exploitation of fossil fuels (fracking and off-shore oil and gas production);
    • The document does not mention the carbon tax.
  • For the remaining sectors, we used the reference scenario projections of the National University of Buenos Aires (UNICEN), in the report “Current situation and GHG emissions projections in Argentina” (Keesler, Orifici and Blanco, 2019).
  • We harmonise the projections to the inventory data by applying the growth rates of the projections to the latest available historical data point.

Additional policies projections

Similar to current policy projections, additional policy projections followed the same methodology with different assumptions:

  • For the energy sector projections, we used an alternative scenario from UNICEN (Keesler, Orifici and Blanco, 2019) that assumes full implementation of the renewable targets, additional energy efficiency measures and other mitigation measures from the sectoral plans. This set of assumptions are aligned with Energy Scenarios of 2019 from the Ministry of Energy (Ministry of Energy and Mining Argentina, 2018).
  • For the remaining sectors, we used the reference scenario projections of the National University of Buenos Aires (UNICEN), in the report “Current situation and GHG emissions projections in Argentina” (Keesler, Orifici and Blanco, 2019).

COVID-19 impact

We applied a novel method to estimate the COVID-19 related dip in greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 and the deployment through to 2030. The uncertainty surrounding the severity and length of the pandemic creates a new level of uncertainty for current and future greenhouse gas emissions. We first update the current policy projections using most recent emissions projections by UNICEN, prepared before the pandemic (as outlined above). We then distil the emissions intensity (GHG emissions/GDP) from this pre-pandemic scenario and apply to it most recent GDP projections that consider the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. To capture a wide range, we use two independent GDP projections: one from IMF (IMF, 2020) and one from the Central Bank of the Republic of Argentina (BCRA) (Banco Central de la República de Argentina, 2020). Since the most recent GDP projections only provide values for years 2020–2022, we use the GDP growth for after 2022 until 2030 that was used as a basis for the original pre-pandemic current policy scenario.

Global Warming Potential values

The CAT uses Global Warming Potential (GWP) values from the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) for all figures and time series. Assessments completed prior to December 2018 (COP24) used GWP values from the IPCC’s Second Assessment Report (SAR).

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