Overall rating
Highly insufficient
Policies & actions
< 3°C World
Internationally supported target
Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Fair share target
Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Climate finance
Not applicable
Net zero target



Comprehensiveness not rated as

Information incomplete
Land use & forestry

historically considered a



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  • APERC. 2019. APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook – 7th Edition (Vol II). Tokyo, Japan: Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan.
  • ASEAN Centre for Energy, and GIZ. 2018. “Mapping of Green Building Codes and Building Energy Efficiency in ASEAN: Towards Guidelines on ASEAN Green Building Codes.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
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  • Climate Policy Database. 2013. Transport Ministerial Regulation No. 201/2013. Cologne and Berlin, Germany: NewClimate Institute.
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  • Diela, Tabita, Bernadette Christina Munthe, and Fransiska Nangoy. 2020. “Indonesia Pushes Back Target for Palm Oil Fuel Refinery to 2026.” Hydrocarbon Processing.
  • Dwisatrio, Bimo, Zuraidah Said, Anggalia Putri Permatasari, Cynthia Maharani, Moira Moeliono, Arief Wijaya, Aditya Awal Lestari, Jennie Yuwono, and Pham Thu Thuy. 2021. “The Context of REDD+ in Indonesia: Drivers, Agents and Institutions.” CIFOR.
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  • Forest Watch Indonesia. 2017. “Six Years ISPO Has Not Been Able to Improve Forest & Land Governance.”
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  • Global Energy Monitor, Sierra Club, CREA, Climate Risk Horizons, GreenID, and Ekosfer. 2021. “Boom and Bust 2021: Tracking the Global Coal Plant Pipeline.”
  • Global Forest Watch. 2021. “Indonesia.” 2021.
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  • Greenpeace Southeast Asia. 2019. “One Million Hectares Burned inside Forest Moratorium Area, Greenpeace Analysis Shows.” Press Release. 2019.
  • Harsono, Norman. 2020. “Indonesia’s Clean Energy Program Faces Setback, ETI Ranking Plunges.” Jakarta, Indonesia: The Jakarta Post.
  • ICCT. 2016. “Biofuels Policy in Indonesia: Overview and Status Report.” Biofuels Policy_ICCT_08082016.pdf.
  • IEA. 2016. “Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures Database.” 2016.
  • IEEFA. 2017. “Overpaid and Underutilized: How Capacity Payments to Coal-Fired Power Plants Could Lock Indonesia into a High-Cost Electricity Future.”
  • ———. 2021. “Indonesia’s State-Owned Utility PLN’s 2060 Net Zero Ambition Not without Flaws and Gaps.” Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis.
  • IESR. 2019. “Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook: Tracking Progress and Review of Clean Energy Development in Indonesia.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ———. 2020. “Green Stimulus, Key in Indonesian Post-COVID-19 Economic Recovery.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ———. 2021a. “Beyond 207 Gigawatts: Unleashing Indonesia’s Solar Potential.” Institute for Essential Services Reform.
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  • Investment Policy Hub. 2020. “‘Omnibus Law’ on Job Creation Has Been Enacted.”
  • Iswara, Made Anthony. 2020. “Fight against Illegal Logging Could Be Cut Back by Mobility Restrictions: NGO.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Jong, Hans Nicholas. 2020. “Indonesia Ends Timber Legality Rule, Stoking Fears of Illegal Logging Boom.” Menlo Park, California.
  • Kementerian PPN/Bappenas. 2019. “Low Carbon Development : A Paradigm Shift Towards a Green Economy in Indonesia.”
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  • Ministry of Finance. 2021. “2020 Income and Budget Expenditures Realisation.”
  • Ministry of Finance Indonesia. 2020a. “Pemerintah Gelontorkan Rp677,2 Triliun Untuk Penanganan COVID-19. 3 June 2020.” Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Finance Indonesia. 2020.
  • ———. 2020b. “Pemerintah Siapkan Total Rp641,17 Triliun Untuk Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional. 18 May 2020.” Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Finance Indonesia. 2020.
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  • Mosnier, A., E. Boere, A. Reumann, P. Yowargana, J. Pirker, P. Havlik, and P. Pacheco. 2017. “Palm Oil and Likely Futures: Assessing the Potential Impacts of Zero Deforestation Commitments and a Moratorium on Large-Scale Oil Palm Plantations in Indonesia.”
  • Mulyani, Mari, and Paul Jepson. 2016. “Does the ‘One Map Initiative’ Represent a New Path for Forest Mapping in Indonesia? Assessing the Contribution of the REDD+ Initiative in Effecting Forest Governance Reform.” Forests 8 (1): 14.
  • Myers, Rodd. 2020. “What Happened to Indonesia’s Timber Legality Verification System?”
  • Nascimento, Leonardo, Takeshi Kuramochi, Heleen van Soest, Ioannis Dafnomilis, Michel den Elzen, Nicklas Forsell, Miroslav Batka, et al. 2021. “Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Scenarios for Major Emitting Countries. Analysis of Current Climate Policies and Mitigation Commitments: 2021 Update.” NewClimate Institute, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
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  • ———. 2018b. “Indonesia Third National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
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  • ———. 2021. “ANALYSIS-To Hit Climate Goals, Indonesia Urged to Ban New Palm Oil Plantations Forever.”
  • Sembiring, Raynaldo, Isna Fatimah, and Grita Anindarini Widyaningsih. 2020. “Indonesia’s Omnibus Bill on Job Creation: A Setback for Environmental Law?” Chinese Journal of Environmental Law 4 (1).
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