Overall rating
Critically insufficient

Policies and action
against fair share

Critically insufficient
4°C+ World

Conditional NDC target
against modelled domestic pathways

Critically insufficient
4°C+ World

Unconditional NDC target
against fair share

Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Climate finance
Not applicable
Net zero target



Comprehensiveness not rated as

Information incomplete
Land use & forestry

historically considered a



  • ADB (2022) Economic indicators for Indonesia. Available at:
  • Alisjahbana, A. S. and Busch, J. M. (2017) ‘Forestry, Forest Fires, and Climate Change in Indonesia’, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 53(2), pp. 111–136. doi: 10.1080/00074918.2017.1365404.
  • Alstom (2022) ‘Alstom and PT MRT Jakarta collaborate to explore the development of future Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit’. Available at:
  • Amri, P., Roesad, K. and Damuri, Y. R. (2020) COVID-19 opportunity to enhance our environmental commitments. Jakarta, Indonesia. Available at:
  • APERC (2019) APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook – 7th edition (Vol II). Tokyo, Japan: Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan. Available at:
  • ASEAN Centre for Energy and GIZ (2018) Mapping of green building codes and building energy efficiency in ASEAN: Towards guidelines on ASEAN green building codes. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • BP (2022) ‘BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2022’. Available at:
  • Cabinet Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia (2020) Menko Perekonomian: Paket Stimulan Pajak Sektor Riil Diperluas. Jakarta, Indonesia. Available at:
  • Climate Action Tracker (2020a) A government roadmap for addressing the climate and post COVID-19 economic crises. Available at: (Accessed: 15 May 2020).
  • Climate Action Tracker (2020b) Paris Agreement Compatible Sectoral Benchmarks. Available at: (Accessed: 14 June 2021).
  • Climate Action Tracker (2021) How a COVID-19 recovery with less coal could benefit Indonesia. Available at: (Accessed: 14 June 2021).
  • Climate Policy Database (2013) Transport Ministerial Regulation No. 201/2013. Cologne and Berlin, Germany: NewClimate Institute. Available at: (Accessed: 22 May 2019).
  • Dwisatrio, B. et al. (2021) ‘The context of REDD+ in Indonesia: Drivers, agents and institutions’. CIFOR. Available at:
  • Energy Policy Tracker (2020) Database. Available at: (Accessed: 2 June 2021).
  • FAOSTAT (2018) FAO statistical databases.
  • Forest Watch Indonesia (2017) ‘Six years ISPO has not been able to improve forest & land governance’. Available at:
  • Global Energy Monitor (2022) Global Coal Plant Tracker - July 2022. Available at: (Accessed: 24 August 2022).
  • Global Forest Watch (2021) Indonesia. Available at:
  • Global Forest Watch (2022) Indonesia. Available at:
  • Government of Indonesia (2021) INDONESIA Long-Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050 (Indonesia LTS-LCCR 2050). Available at:
  • Government of Indonesia (2022) Presidential Regulation to accelerate the development of renewable energy for electricity supply [Perpres 112-2022 Percepatan Pengembangan Energi Terbarukan untuk Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik]. Presidency of Indonesia. Available at: (Accessed: 25 October 2022).
  • Greenpeace Southeast Asia (2019) One million hectares burned inside Forest Moratorium area, Greenpeace analysis shows, Press release. Available at: (Accessed: 18 October 2019).
  • Gütschow, J. and Pflüger, M. (2022) ‘The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series (1750-2021) v2.4.’ Zenodo. doi:
  • ICCT (2016) Biofuels Policy in Indonesia: Overview and Status Report. Available at: Biofuels Policy_ICCT_08082016.pdf.
  • IEA (2021) ‘Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector’. International Energy Agency (IEA).
  • IEEFA (2017) Overpaid and Underutilized: How capacity payments to coal-fired power plants could lock Indonesia into a high-cost electricity future. Available at: (Accessed: 11 April 2018).
  • IESR; Agora Energiewende (2021) Deep decarbonization of Indonesia’s energy system: A Pathway to zero emissions by 2050. Available at:
  • IESR (2019) Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook: Tracking Progress and Review of Clean Energy Development in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia. Available at:
  • IESR (2020) Green Stimulus, Key in Indonesian Post-COVID-19 Economic Recovery. Jakarta, Indonesia. Available at:
  • IESR (2021a) ‘Beyond 207 Gigawatts: Unleashing Indonesia’s Solar Potential’. Institute for Essential Services Reform. Available at:
  • IESR (2021b) Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook (IETO) 2021. Jakarta, Indonesia. Available at:
  • IESR (2022a) Financing Indonesia’s coal phase-out. Available at:
  • IESR (2022b) Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook (IETO) 2022. Available at: Energy Transition Outlook %28IETO%29 2022 Progress and,year i.e. the Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook %28IETO%29.
  • IMF (2022) World Economic Outlook April 2022. Available at:
  • International Energy Agency (2018) Global EV Outlook 2018. Available at:
  • IPCC (2018) Global Warming of 1.5°C: Summary for Policymakers.
  • Media Indonesia (2020) ‘Hergun: Batalkan PP Nomor 23 Tahun 2020’, Politik dan Hukum.
  • MEMR (2022a) Performance achievements of the energy and mineral resources sector in 2021 & plans for 2022 [Capaian kinerja sektor ESDM tahun 2021 & rencana 2022]. Available at: (Accessed: 24 October 2022).
  • MEMR (2022b) ‘Renewables Power Plants COD within Target, Says Official’. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Indonesia. Available at: (Accessed: 24 October 2022).
  • MEMR (2022d) Road Map Pengembangan dan Pemanfaatan Batubara. Available at:
  • MEMR (2022e) Roadmap for energy efficiency, low-carbon buildings, and construction sector in Indonesia. Available at: file:///C:/Users/JamieWong/Downloads/Roadmap Indonesia Building and Construction.pdf.
  • MEMR (2018) ‘Regulation of Rooftop PV’, in Regulation No. 49/2018. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia. Available at: ESDM Nomor 49 Tahun 2018.pdf.
  • MEMR (2015) Ministerial Regulation No. 12/2015. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.
  • Mersmann, F. et al. (2017) Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions - Indonesia country report. Available at:
  • Ministry of Environment and Forestry (2022) Operational Plan for Indonesia’s FOLU Net Sink 2030. Available at:
  • Ministry of Finance (2021) ‘2020 Income and budget expenditures realisation’.
  • Ministry of Finance Indonesia (2020a) Pemerintah Gelontorkan Rp677,2 Triliun untuk Penanganan COVID-19. 3 June 2020. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Finance Indonesia. Available at: (Accessed: 30 September 2020).
  • Ministry of Finance Indonesia (2020b) Pemerintah Siapkan Total Rp641,17 Triliun Untuk Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional. 18 May 2020. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Finance Indonesia. Available at: (Accessed: 30 September 2020).
  • Ministry of Transportation (2014) Sustainable Urban Transport Programme Indonesia (NAMA SUTRI).
  • Mosnier, A. et al. (2017) ‘Palm oil and likely futures: Assessing the potential impacts of zero deforestation commitments and a moratorium on large-scale oil palm plantations in Indonesia’. doi: 10.17528/cifor/006468.
  • Nascimento, L. et al. (2021) Greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries. Analysis of current climate policies and mitigation commitments: 2021 Update. NewClimate Institute, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
  • National Energy Council (DEN) (2019) ‘Indonesia Energy Outlook 2019’. Available at:
  • OECD/IEA (2021) ‘Update on recent progress in reform of inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption2021’. Available at: (Accessed: 23 September 2021).
  • OECD (2022) Real GDP long-term forecast. Available at:
  • Republic of Indonesia (2016) First Nationally Determined Contribution. Available at: First/First NDC Indonesia_submitted to UNFCCC Set_November 2016.pdf.
  • Republic of Indonesia (2017) ‘Rencana Umum Energi Nasional (RUEN)’, in Presidential Regulation No. 22/2017. Available at:
  • Republic of Indonesia (2018a) Indonesia. Biennial update report (BUR). BUR 2. Available at:
  • Republic of Indonesia (2018b) Indonesia Second Biennial Update Report. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Republic of Indonesia (2018c) Indonesia Third National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Republic of Indonesia (2018d) ‘Transportation Master Plan Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi 2018 - 2029’, in Presidential Regulation No. 55/2018. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Transportation. Available at:
  • Republic of Indonesia (2021) ‘Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik (RUPTL) 2021-2030’. Available at:
  • Reuters (2020) Indonesia plans B40 biodiesel road tests in April. Jakarta, Indonesia. Available at:
  • Reuters (2021) ‘ANALYSIS-To hit climate goals, Indonesia urged to ban new palm oil plantations forever’. Available at:
  • Reuters (2022) ‘UPDATE 2-Draft Indonesia renewables bill proposes coal-based fuels as “new energy”’. Available at:
  • Silalahi, D. F. et al. (2021) ‘Indonesia’s Vast Solar Energy Potential’, Energies, 14(17), p. 5424. Available at:
  • Statista (2021) Biodiesel exports from Indonesia from 2010 to 2020 and a forecast for 2021. Available at: biodiesel exports amounted to 39 million liters,country destinations%2C followed by China and South Korea.
  • Sumarno, T. B. and Sanchez, L. (2021) ‘How Indonesia Can Achieve Both a COVID-19 Recovery and Its Climate Targets’. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Available at:
  • UNFCCC (2015) Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data, Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data. Available at:
  • UNFCCC (2018) CDM Project Database. Available at: (Accessed: 25 June 2018).
  • Walden, M. (2019) ‘Indonesia hoping for wet season to dampen forest fires as toxic haze spreads over neighbours’, ABC News. Available at: (Accessed: 18 October 2019).
  • Wilmar International (2018) ‘Creating a deforestation-free palm oil supply chain’, (December), pp. 1–8.
  • World Bank (2022a) Global Economic Prospects (Jan 2022), Global Economic Prospects. Available at:
  • World Bank (2022b) ‘World Development Indicators’. Available at:

Country-related publications

Stay informed

Subscribe to our newsletter