Indonesia

Overall rating
Highly insufficient
Policies & action
Insufficient
< 3°C World
Internationally supported target
Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Fair share target
Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Climate finance
Not applicable
Net zero target

year

2060

Comprehensiveness not rated as

Information incomplete
Land use & forestry

historically considered a

Source

References

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  • Amri, Puspa, Kurnya Roesad, and Yose Rizal Damuri. 2020. “COVID-19 Opportunity to Enhance Our Environmental Commitments.” Jakarta, Indonesia. https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2020/05/05/covid-19-opportunity-to-enhance-our-environmental-commitments.html.
  • APERC. 2019. APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook – 7th Edition (Vol II). Tokyo, Japan: Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan. http://aperc.ieej.or.jp/file/2010/9/24/Outlook_Volume_II_4E.pdf.
  • ASEAN Centre for Energy, and GIZ. 2018. “Mapping of Green Building Codes and Building Energy Efficiency in ASEAN: Towards Guidelines on ASEAN Green Building Codes.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
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  • Dwisatrio, Bimo, Zuraidah Said, Anggalia Putri Permatasari, Cynthia Maharani, Moira Moeliono, Arief Wijaya, Aditya Awal Lestari, Jennie Yuwono, and Pham Thu Thuy. 2021. “The Context of REDD+ in Indonesia: Drivers, Agents and Institutions.” CIFOR. https://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-216.pdf.
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  • Global Energy Monitor, Sierra Club, CREA, Climate Risk Horizons, GreenID, and Ekosfer. 2021. “Boom and Bust 2021: Tracking the Global Coal Plant Pipeline.” https://globalenergymonitor.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BoomAndBust_2021_final.pdf.
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  • Greenpeace Southeast Asia. 2019. “One Million Hectares Burned inside Forest Moratorium Area, Greenpeace Analysis Shows.” Press Release. 2019. https://www.greenpeace.org/southeastasia/press/2834/one-million-hectares-of-forest-burned-inside-forests-moratorium-area-greenpeace-analysis-show/.
  • Harsono, Norman. 2020. “Indonesia’s Clean Energy Program Faces Setback, ETI Ranking Plunges.” Jakarta, Indonesia: The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/05/19/indonesias-clean-energy-program-faces-setback-eti-ranking-plunges.html.
  • ICCT. 2016. “Biofuels Policy in Indonesia: Overview and Status Report.” http://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Indonesia Biofuels Policy_ICCT_08082016.pdf.
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  • IEEFA. 2017. “Overpaid and Underutilized: How Capacity Payments to Coal-Fired Power Plants Could Lock Indonesia into a High-Cost Electricity Future.” http://ieefa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Overpaid-and-Underutilized_How-Capacity-Payments-to-Coal-Fired-Power-Plants-Could-Lock-Indonesia-into-a-High-Cost-Electricity-Future-_August2017.pdf.
  • ———. 2021. “Indonesia’s State-Owned Utility PLN’s 2060 Net Zero Ambition Not without Flaws and Gaps.” Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis. https://ieefa.org/ieefa-indonesias-state-owned-utility-plns-2060-net-zero-ambition-not-without-flaws-and-gaps/.
  • IESR. 2019. “Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook: Tracking Progress and Review of Clean Energy Development in Indonesia.” Jakarta, Indonesia. http://iesr.or.id/pustaka/iceo2020/#.
  • ———. 2020. “Green Stimulus, Key in Indonesian Post-COVID-19 Economic Recovery.” Jakarta, Indonesia. http://iesr.or.id/green-stimulus-key-in-indonesian-post-covid-19-economic-recovery/.
  • ———. 2021a. “Beyond 207 Gigawatts: Unleashing Indonesia’s Solar Potential.” Institute for Essential Services Reform. https://iesr.or.id/en/pustaka/beyond-207-gigawatts-unleashing-indonesias-solar-potential.
  • ———. 2021b. “Coal as Stranded Assets: Potential Climate-Related Transition Risk and Its Financial Impacts to Indonesia Banking Sector.” Institute for Essential Services Reform. https://iesr.or.id/en/pustaka/coal-as-stranded-assets-potential-climate-related-transition-risk-and-its-financial-impacts-to-indonesia-banking-sector#.
  • ———. 2021c. “Deep Decarbonization of Indonesia’s Energy System: A Pathway to Zero Emissions by 2050.” https://iesr.or.id/en/pustaka/deep-decarbonization-of-indonesias-energy-system-a-pathway-to-zero-emissions-by-2050.
  • ———. 2021d. “Hitting Record-Low Solar Electricity Prices in Indonesia.” Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR). https://iesr.or.id/en/pustaka/hitting-record-low-solar-electricity-prices-in-indonesia.
  • ———. 2021e. “Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook (IETO) 2021.” Jakarta, Indonesia. https://iesr.or.id/en/pustaka/indonesia-energy-transition-outlook-ieto-2021.
  • ———. 2021f. “Measuring the Urgency of EBT Bill.” Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR). https://iesr.or.id/en/measuring-the-urgency-of-ebt-bill.
  • IMF. 2021a. “World Economic Outlook (July 2021).” 2021. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2021/07/27/world-economic-outlook-update-july-2021.
  • ———. 2021b. “World Economic Outlook Database (April 2021).” https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2021/April/download-entire-database.
  • ———. 2021c. “World Economic Outlook Update: April 2021.”
  • International Energy Agency. 2018. “Global EV Outlook 2018.” https://webstore.iea.org/download/direct/1045?filename=globalevoutlook2018.pdf.
  • Investment Policy Hub. 2020. “‘Omnibus Law’ on Job Creation Has Been Enacted.” https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/investment-policy-monitor/measures/3567/indonesia-omnibus-law-on-job-creation-has-been-enacted.
  • Iswara, Made Anthony. 2020. “Fight against Illegal Logging Could Be Cut Back by Mobility Restrictions: NGO.” Jakarta, Indonesia. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/05/03/fight-against-illegal-logging-could-be-cut-back-by-mobility-restrictions-ngo.html.
  • Jong, Hans Nicholas. 2020. “Indonesia Ends Timber Legality Rule, Stoking Fears of Illegal Logging Boom.” Menlo Park, California. https://news.mongabay.com/2020/03/indonesia-timber-illegal-logging-legality-license-svlk/.
  • Kementerian PPN/Bappenas. 2019. “Low Carbon Development : A Paradigm Shift Towards a Green Economy in Indonesia.” https://www.bappenas.go.id/id/berita-dan-siaran-pers/pembangunan-rendah-karbon-pergeseranparadigma-menuju-ekonomi-hijau-di-indonesia/.
  • Media Indonesia. 2020. “Hergun: Batalkan PP Nomor 23 Tahun 2020.” Politik Dan Hukum, 2020.
  • MEMR Indonesia. 2017. “The Utilization of Renewable Power Generation.” In Regulation No. 50/2017. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia. https://jdih.esdm.go.id/peraturan/Salinan sesuai Aslinya_PM ESDM NO. 50 TAHUN 2017.pdf.
  • ———. 2018. “Regulation of Rooftop PV.” In Regulation No. 49/2018. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia. https://jdih.esdm.go.id/peraturan/Permen ESDM Nomor 49 Tahun 2018.pdf.
  • Mersmann, Florian, Timon Wehnert, Tatiana Andreeva, Hanna Fekete, Lisa Luna, and Verena Streitferdt. 2017. “Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions - Indonesia Country Report.” https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/1410/publikationen/2017-10-26_climate-change_24-2017_country-report-indonesia.pdf.
  • Ministry of Environment and Forestry. 2021. “Long-Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050 (Indonesia LTS-LCCR 2050).” 2021. https://unfccc.int/process/the-paris-agreement/long-term-strategies.
  • Ministry of Finance. 2021. “2020 Income and Budget Expenditures Realisation.”
  • Ministry of Finance Indonesia. 2020a. “Pemerintah Gelontorkan Rp677,2 Triliun Untuk Penanganan COVID-19. 3 June 2020.” Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Finance Indonesia. 2020. https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/publikasi/berita/pemerintah-gelontorkan-rp677-2-triliun-untuk-penanganan-covid-19/.
  • ———. 2020b. “Pemerintah Siapkan Total Rp641,17 Triliun Untuk Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional. 18 May 2020.” Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Finance Indonesia. 2020. https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/publikasi/berita/pemerintah-siapkan-total-rp641-17-triliun-untuk-pemulihan-ekonomi-nasional/.
  • Ministry of National Development Planning (Bappenas). 2019. “Rancangan Teknokratik: Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2020-2024.” https://www.bappenas.go.id/files/rpjmn/Narasi RPJMN IV 2020-2024_Revisi 14 Agustus 2019.pdf.
  • Ministry of Transportation. 2014. “Sustainable Urban Transport Programme Indonesia (NAMA SUTRI).”
  • Mosnier, A., E. Boere, A. Reumann, P. Yowargana, J. Pirker, P. Havlik, and P. Pacheco. 2017. “Palm Oil and Likely Futures: Assessing the Potential Impacts of Zero Deforestation Commitments and a Moratorium on Large-Scale Oil Palm Plantations in Indonesia.” https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor/006468.
  • Mulyani, Mari, and Paul Jepson. 2016. “Does the ‘One Map Initiative’ Represent a New Path for Forest Mapping in Indonesia? Assessing the Contribution of the REDD+ Initiative in Effecting Forest Governance Reform.” Forests 8 (1): 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8010014.
  • Myers, Rodd. 2020. “What Happened to Indonesia’s Timber Legality Verification System?” https://www.dala.institute/post/svlk_2020.
  • Nascimento, Leonardo, Takeshi Kuramochi, Heleen van Soest, Ioannis Dafnomilis, Michel den Elzen, Nicklas Forsell, Miroslav Batka, et al. 2021. “Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Scenarios for Major Emitting Countries. Analysis of Current Climate Policies and Mitigation Commitments: 2021 Update.” NewClimate Institute, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. https://newclimate.org/2021/10/07/ghg-mitigation-scenarios-for-major-emitting-countries-analysis-of-current-climate-policies-2021-update/.
  • National Energy Council (DEN). 2019. “Indonesia Energy Outlook 2019.” https://www.esdm.go.id/assets/media/content/content-indonesia-energy-outlook-2019-english-version.pdf.
  • OECD/IEA. 2021. “Update on Recent Progress in Reform of Inefficient Fossil-Fuel Subsidies That Encourage Wasteful Consumption.” https://www.oecd.org/g20/topics/climate-sustainability-and-energy/OECD-IEA-G20-Fossil-Fuel-Subsidies-Reform-Update-2021.pdf.
  • President of the Republic of Indonesia. 2019. “The Electric Vehicle Acceleration Program for Road Transport.” Regulation No. 55/2019. Jakarta, Indonesia. https://jdih.esdm.go.id/peraturan/Perpres Nomor 55 Tahun 2019 - Salinan (1).pdf.
  • Quéré, Corinne Le, Robert B. Jackson, Matthew W. Jones, Adam J.P. P. Smith, Sam Abernethy, Robbie M. Andrew, Anthony J. De-Gol, et al. 2020. “Supplementary Data to: Le Quéré et Al (2020), Temporary Reduction in Daily Global CO2 Emissions during the COVID-19 Forced Confinement (Version 1.2).” Global Carbon Project. https://doi.org/10.18160/RQDW-BTJU.
  • Republic of Indonesia. 2011. “Peraturan Presiden (Presidential Regulation) No 61/2011: Rencana Aksi Nasional Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca.” http://ditjenpp.kemenkumham.go.id/arsip/ln/2011/ps61-2011.pdf.
  • ———. 2016. “First Nationally Determined Contribution.” https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/ndcstaging/PublishedDocuments/Indonesia First/First NDC Indonesia_submitted to UNFCCC Set_November 2016.pdf.
  • ———. 2017. “Rencana Umum Energi Nasional (RUEN).” In Presidential Regulation No. 22/2017. https://www.esdm.go.id/assets/media/content/content-rencana-umum-energi-nasional-ruen.pdf.
  • ———. 2018a. “Indonesia Second Biennial Update Report.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ———. 2018b. “Indonesia Third National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.” Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ———. 2018c. “Transportation Master Plan Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi 2018 - 2029.” In Presidential Regulation No. 55/2018. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Transportation. http://jdih.dephub.go.id/assets/uudocs/perpres/2018/Perpres-Nomor-55-Tahun-2018.pdf.
  • ———. 2019. “Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik (RUPTL) 2019-2028.” https://jdih.esdm.go.id/peraturan/Kepmen ESDM No. 39 K-20-MEM-2019 tentang Pengesahan RUPTL PT PLN 2019-2028.pdf.
  • ———. 2021. “Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik (RUPTL) 2021-2030.” https://web.pln.co.id/statics/uploads/2021/10/ruptl-2021-2030.pdf.
  • Reuters. 2020. “Indonesia Plans B40 Biodiesel Road Tests in April.” Jakarta, Indonesia. https://energy.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/renewable/indonesia-plans-b40-biodiesel-road-tests-in-april/73173270.
  • ———. 2021. “ANALYSIS-To Hit Climate Goals, Indonesia Urged to Ban New Palm Oil Plantations Forever.” https://www.reuters.com/article/indonesia-palmoil-climate-idUSL4N2OZ0EG.
  • Sembiring, Raynaldo, Isna Fatimah, and Grita Anindarini Widyaningsih. 2020. “Indonesia’s Omnibus Bill on Job Creation: A Setback for Environmental Law?” Chinese Journal of Environmental Law 4 (1). https://brill.com/view/journals/cjel/4/1/article-p97_5.xml?language=en&body=fullHtml-29622.
  • Silalahi, David Firnando, Andrew Blakers, Matthew Stocks, Bin Lu, Cheng Cheng, and Liam Hayes. 2021. “Indonesia’s Vast Solar Energy Potential.” Energies 14 (17). https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/17/5424/htm.
  • Statistica. 2021. “Biodiesel Exports from Indonesia from 2010 to 2020 and a Forecast for 2021.” 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1055597/indonesia-biodiesel-exports/#:~:text=Indonesia%27s biodiesel exports amounted to 39 million liters,country destinations%2C followed by China and South Korea.
  • Suharsono, Anissa, Neil McCulloch, Mostafa Mostafa, Richard Bridle, Lucky Lontoh, and Philip Gass. 2019. “Getting to 23 Per Cent: Strategies to Scale up Renewables in Indonesia.”
  • Suharto, Prisca Triferna V. 2021. “Bappenas Prepares Scenarios for Achieving Net-Zero Emissions Target.” Antara News. https://en.antaranews.com/news/172934/bappenas-prepares-scenarios-for-achieving-net-zero-emissions-target.
  • Sumarno, Theresia Betty, and Lourdes Sanchez. 2021. “How Indonesia Can Achieve Both a COVID-19 Recovery and Its Climate Targets.” International Institute for Sustainable Development. https://www.iisd.org/system/files/2021-10/indonesia-achieve-covid-19-recovery-climate-targets.pdf.
  • UNFCCC. 2015. “Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data.” Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data. http://unfccc.int/di/FlexibleQueries/Event.do?event=go.
  • ———. 2018. “CDM Project Database.” 2018. http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/projsearch.html.
  • Walden, Max. 2019. “Indonesia Hoping for Wet Season to Dampen Forest Fires as Toxic Haze Spreads over Neighbours.” ABC News. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-09-16/indonesia-forest-fires-explainer/11518688.
  • Wijaya, Arief, Hanny Chrysolite, Mengpin Ge, Clorinda Kurnia Wibowo, Almo Pradana, Andhyta Firselly Utami, and Kemen Austin. 2017. “How Can Indonesia Achieve Its Climate Change Mitigation Goal? An Analysis Of Potential Emissions Reductions From Energy And Land-Use Policies.” World Resources Institute., no. September: 36. https://doi.org/10.4155/cmt.13.77.
  • Wilmar International. 2018. “Creating a Deforestation-Free Palm Oil Supply Chain,” no. December: 1–8.
  • World Bank. 2021. “Global Economic Prospects (May 2021).” https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia/publication/indonesia-economic-prospects-iep-june-2021-boosting-the-recovery.

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