Overall rating

Policies and action
against modelled domestic pathways

< 3°C World

NDC target
against modelled domestic pathways

< 3°C World

NDC target
against fair share

< 3°C World
Climate finance
Highly insufficient
Net zero target



Comprehensiveness rated as

Land use & forestry
Not significant


  • Argus Media. (2021). Japan’s Nippon Steel eyes EAF, hydrogen to decarbonise. https://www.argusmedia.com/en/news/2201033-japans-nippon-steel-eyes-eaf-hydrogen-to-decarbonise
  • Asahi Shimbun. (2023a). 'Suiso kihon senryaku" kaitei he 15chouen toushi de 2040 en no suisokyoukyu 6bai ni ["Hydrogen Basic Strategy" to be revised: 15 trillion yen investment to increase hydrogen supply sixfold by 2040]. https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASR444KB5R44UTFK004.html
  • Asahi Shimbun. (2023b). Cabinet approves policy shift to permit new nuclear reactors. https://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/14836865
  • Asahi Shimbun. (2023c). Genpastsusaikadou, sansei 51% shinsaigo hajimete sanpi ga gyakuten asahishinbun seronchousa [51% in Favor of Resuming Nuclear Power Plant Operations, First Reversal of Pros and Cons Since Earthquake Asahi Shimbun Poll]. https://digital.asahi.com/articles/ASR2M7V76R2MUZPS003.html
  • BloombergNEF. (2022). Japan ’ s Costly Ammonia Coal Strategy. Bloomberg Finance L.P. https://about.bnef.com/blog/japans-ammonia-coal-co-firing-strategy-a-costly-approach-to-decarbonization-renewables-present-more-economic-alternative/
  • Boehm, S., Jeffery, L., Levin, K., Hecke, J., Schumer, C., Fyson, C., WIlson, R., Majid, A., Jaeger, J., Nilsson, A., Naimoli, S., Thwaites, J., Cassidy, E., Lebling, K., Sims, M., Waite, R., Castellanos, S., Singh, N., Lee, A., & Geiges, A. (2022). State of Climate Action 2022. https://files.wri.org/d8/s3fs-public/2022-10/state-of-climate-action-2022.pdf?VersionId=FGO5z5zZIa3qyqTNLfoH4BqIuXxMnyOm
  • Carbon Tracker. (2022). Put a price on it: The case for more effective carbon pricing in Japan. https://carbontracker.org/30-tonco2-minimum-carbon-price-needed-to-bring-forward-fossil-fuel-phase-out-and-accelerate-renewables-deployment-in-japan/
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  • Christoph Bals, K. M. and E. B. (2022, May 25). OPINION : G7 must seize opportunity to shift public finance from conflict- fuelling gas into clean energy. Thomson Reuters Foundation News, May 2022, 1–12. https://news.trust.org/item/20220525064817-1fvro/
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  • InfraBiz. (2021). Yojofuryoku no 2030 nen mokuhyou ryouyou ha 5.7GW, dai 6ji energugi kihonkeikaku ga kakugi kettei [Offshore Wind Capacity Targeted at 5.7 GW in 2030; Cabinet Approves Sixth Basic Energy Plan]. https://infrabiz.co.jp/1863/
  • JAIF. (2023). Current Status of Nuclear Power Plants in Japan as of November 10, 2023. https://www.jaif.or.jp/cms_admin/wp-content/uploads/2023/11/jp-npps-operation20231110_en.pdf
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  • JISF. (2021). Wagakuni no 2050nen carbon neutral ni kansuru nihon tekkougyou no kihon houshin [Basic policy of the Japanese iron and steel industry in relation to our nation’s 2050 carbon neutrality goal]. Japan Iron and Steel Federation. https://www.jisf.or.jp/news/topics/documents/CN2050.pdf
  • JISF. (2023). Activities of Japanese Steel Industry to Combat Global Warming. https://www.jisf.or.jp/en/activity/climate/documents/20230216_tekkouwg_en.pdf
  • Keidanren. (2013). Keidanren teisanso shakai jikkou keikaku [Keidanren’s Commitment to a Low Carbon Society]. Revised on 26.04.2019. Keidanren. http://www.keidanren.or.jp/policy/2013/003.html
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  • Kiko Network. (2021). Issues related to Hydrogen and Ammonia Power Generation : expanding fossil fuel extraction and preserving coal and LNG thermal power [Suiso・Ammonia Hatsuden no kadai: kasekinenryou sakutsu wo kakudai sase sekitan・LNG karyoku wo onzon saseru sentakushi]. Kiko Network. https://www.kikonet.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/posision-paper-hydrogen-ammonia_rev2.pdf
  • Kumagai, T. (2022, May 30). Japan remains committed with public support for upstream developments after G7 pledge. S&P Global. https://www.spglobal.com/commodityinsights/en/market-insights/blogs/lng/101822-ctracker-us-lng-oil-tanker-freight-france-nuclear-strikes-winter-gas-power-burn
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  • METI. (2017). Basic Hydrogen Strategy. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan.
  • METI. (2018a). Collection of Reports under Article 3 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Act on the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures. http://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2018/0710_002.html
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  • METI. (2019a). Cabinet Orders concerning the Act of Promoting Utilization of Sea Areas in Development of Power Generation Facilities Using Maritime Renewable Energy Resources Approved. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2019/0315_003.html
  • METI. (2019b). The Strategic Road Map for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Industry-academia-government action plan to realize a “ Hydrogen Society .” Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2019/pdf/0312_002b.pdf
  • METI. (2020). Jidousha - chikudenchi sangyou [Automotive and Battery Industry].
  • METI. (2021a). Cabinet Decision on the Sixth Strategic Energy Plan. 22 October. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2021/1022_002.html
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  • METI. (2021d). Sekitan karyoku kentou working group chuukan torimatome (an) gaiyou [Working Group for Coal-Fired Power Interim Summary (Draft)]. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan. https://www.meti.go.jp/shingikai/enecho/denryoku_gas/denryoku_gas/sekitan_karyoku_wg/pdf/008_03_00.pdf
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