International Aviation

Critically Insufficient4°C+
Highly insufficient< 4°C
Insufficient< 3°C
2°C Compatible< 2°C
1.5°C Paris Agreement Compatible< 1.5°C
Role model<< 1.5°C

List of references

  • Brazil (2019) ‘Statement of the Permanent Delegation of Brazil to the International Civil Aviation Organization. Verbal Note No.: 2019-082 / BRASICAO’. Available at:
  • Burkhardt, U., Bock, L. and Bier, A. (2018) ‘Mitigating the contrail cirrus climate impact by reducing aircraft soot number emissions’, Climate and Atmospheric Science. Springer US, pp. 1–37. doi: 10.1038/s41612-018-0046-4.
  • CE Delft (2019) Taxes in the Field of Aviation and their impact - Final report. doi: 10.2832/913591.
  • China (2019) ‘Statement of the Chinese Delegation on the “Consolidated Statement of Continuing ICAO Policies and Practices Related to Environmental Protection - Climate Change” and the ’Consolidated Statement of Continuing ICAO Policies and Practices Related to Related to Environmental Protection - Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation’. Available at:
  • Council of the European Union (2020) ‘Aviation emissions: EU adopts its position on adjusted CORSIA baseline to take account of the consequences of COVID-19 pandemic’. Brussels, Belgium. Available at:
  • Ecosystem Marketplace (2020) Carbon markets are well-positioned to meet CORSIA demand projections. Available at:
  • EDF (2019) ICAO’s market-based measure. Available at:
  • Energy Transitions Commission (2019) Mission Possible -Reaching net-zero carbon emissions from harder-to-abate sectors by mid century. Sectoral focus: aviation. Available at: sectoral focus - Aviation_final.pdf.
  • Faber, J. and Huigen, T. (2018) A study on aviation ticket taxes. CE Delft. Available at:
  • Fearnehough, H. et al. (2019) Offset Credit Supply for CORSIA. German Emissions Trading Authority (DEHSt). Available at:
  • Feuvre, P. Le (2019) Are aviation biofuels ready for take-off?, IEA. Available at:
  • Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace (2019) Financing Emissions Reductions for the Future: State of Voluntary Carbon Markets 2019. Washington. Available at:
  • Graver, B., Zhang, K. and Rutherford, D. (2019) CO2 emissions from commercial aviation, 2018. 2019–16. Available at:
  • Grewe, V. et al. (2017) ‘Feasibility of climate-optimized air traffic routing for trans-Atlantic flights’, Environmental Researd Letters, 12, p. 034003. Available at:
  • Hall, D., Pavlenko, N. and Lutsey, N. (2018) Beyond road vehicles: Survey of zero-emission technology options across the transport sector, The International Council on Clean Transportation. 11. Available at:
  • IATA (2020a) Carbon Offsetting Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) - COVID-19. Available at:
  • IATA (2020b) COVID-19 Puts Over Half of 2020 Passenger Revenues at Risk. Available at:
  • IATA (2020c) Don’t Make A Slow Recovery More Difficult with Quarantine Measures. Available at:
  • ICAO (2013a) Assembly Resolutions in Force. Doc 10022. Montreal. Available at:
  • ICAO (2013b) Destination Green. Environmental Report 2013. Montreal. Available at:
  • ICAO (2018) Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Environmental Protection. Volume IV, Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).
  • ICAO (2019a) ‘CORSIA Sustainability Criteria for CORSIA Eligible Fuels’. Available at: document 05 - Sustainability Criteria.pdf.
  • ICAO (2019b) Destination Green: The Next Chapter - 2019 Environmental Report. Montreal. Available at: (1).pdf.
  • ICAO (2020a) CORSIA States for Chapter 3 State Pairs - Updated information on the States that intend to voluntarily participate in CORSIA from its outset. Available at: (Accessed: 9 December 2019).
  • ICAO (2020b) Effects of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) on Civil Aviation: Economic Impact Analysis (8 June 2020). Available at:
  • ICAO (2020c) ICAO - History. Available at:
  • ICAO (2020d) ‘International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). Program Application Form, Appendix A’. Available at:
  • ICAO Assembly (2016) Resolution A39-3: Consolidated statement of continuing ICAO policies and practices related to environmental protection – Global Market-based Measure (MBM) scheme. Available at:
  • IEA (2019) CO2 Emissions Statistics. Available at:
  • India (2019) ‘Declaration of Reservation of the Republic of India in relation to Resolution A40-19: Consolidated Statement of Continuing ICAO Policies and Practices Related to Environmental Protection - Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation’. Available at:
  • IPCC (2007) Mitigation of climate change: Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Available at:
  • IPCC (2018) IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C. Available at:
  • Kharina, A., Rutherford, D. and Zeinali, M. (2016) Cost assessment of near and mid-term technologies to improve new aircraft fuel efficiency. Washington DC, USA: International Council on Clean Transportation. Available at: aircraft fuel efficiency cost assessment_final_09272016.pdf.
  • Larsson, J. et al. (2019) ‘International and national climate policies for aviation: a review’, Climate Policy. Taylor & Francis, 19(6), pp. 787–799. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2018.1562871.
  • Malins, C. (2019) Understanding the indirect land use change analysis for CORSIA. Available at:
  • Mendes de Leon, P. et al. (2015) Possible legal arrangements to implement a global market based measure for international aviation emissions. Available at:
  • Napp, T. A. et al. (2019) ‘The role of advanced demand-sector technologies and energy demand reduction in achieving ambitious carbon budgets’, Applied Energy, 238(December 2018), pp. 351–367. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.033.
  • National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine (2016) Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research: Reducing Global Carbon Emissions. Washington D.C: The National Academies Press. Available at:
  • Netherlands et al. (2019) ‘Joint statement on EU coordination for aviation pricing by the Ministers of Finance - 7 November 2019’. Available at:–-7-november-2019/Joint+statement+on+EU+coordination+for+aviation.
  • Owen, B., Lee, D. S. and Lim, L. (2010) ‘Flying into the Future: Aviation Emissions Scenarios to 2050’, Environmental Science & Technology, 44, pp. 2255–2260. doi: 10.1021/es902530z.
  • Russia (2019) ‘Statement: The Russian Federation’s Reservations on the Text of Resolutions: “16/1. Consolidated Statement of Continuing ICAO Policies and Practices Related to Environmental Protection - Climate Change” and ’17/1. Consolidated Statement of Continuing ICAO’. Available at:
  • Rutherford, D. (2020) Standards to promote airline fuel efficiency. Available at:
  • Scheelhaase, J., Maertens, S. and Grimme, W. (2019) ‘Synthetic fuels in aviation – Current barriers potential political measures’, Transportation Research Procedia. Elsevier B.V., 43, pp. 21–30. doi: 10.1016/j.trpro.2019.12.015.
  • Schneider, L. et al. (2019) ‘Lessons learned from the first round of applications by carbon-offsetting programs for eligibility under CORSIA’. Öko-Institut e.V. Available at:
  • Schneider, L. and Graichen, J. (2020) Should CORSIA be changed due to the COVID-19 crisis? Öko Institut. Available at:
  • Searle, S. et al. (2019) Long-term aviation fuel decarbonization: Progress, roadblocks, and policy opportunities. Washington D.C: ICCT. Available at:
  • Yanguas Parra, P. A. et al. (2019) Global and regional coal phase-out requirements of the Paris Agreement: Insights from the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C. Available at:

Latest publications

Stay informed

Subscribe to our newsletter