Overall rating

Policies and action
against modelled domestic pathways

< 3°C World

NDC target
against modelled domestic pathways

Almost Sufficient
< 2°C World

NDC target
against fair share

< 3°C World
Climate finance
Critically insufficient
Net zero target



Comprehensiveness rated as

Land use & forestry

historically considered a



We evaluate the net zero target as: Poor

Australia included the target to achieve net zero by 2050 in its updated NDCs in October 2021 and June 2022. Details were published in the Long-term Emission Reductions Plan submitted as its Long-term Strategy (LTS) to the UNFCCC in October 2021. The Climate Change Bill 2022 enshrined the 2050 target in the law.

The Long-term Emission Reductions Plan leaves a significant emissions gap between its planned reductions and its net zero target in 2050.

The strategy presents ambiguous emissions scenarios that reduce emissions by 60% below 2005 emissions level, excluding LULUCF (rather than 100%). The strategy relies on global technology trends, carbon offsets and further unknown technology “breakthroughs” rather presenting any new policies.

The Long-term Emission Reductions plan relies on so-called global technology trends for 15% of the reductions needed and a further 15% from “future technology breakthroughs” ‑ below its 2005 baseline. A further 10% of reductions are expected to come from international or domestic offsets. Overall, the plan relies heavily on the future development of low-emissions technology with no plans to phase out coal, curb fossil fuel exports, or hold heavy polluters accountable.

The government still has to update its 2050 climate strategy. Similarly, the modelling behind the government’s proposed policies is unclear on how net zero can be achieved, and also relies heavily on carbon offsets.

Comprehensiveness of net zero target design
Target year: 2050
Emissions coverage

Target covers all GHG emissions

International aviation and shipping

The target excludes both international aviation and shipping

Reductions or removals outside of own borders

Relies on international offset credits or reserves right to use them to meet net zero

Legal Status

Net zero target in law

Separate reduction & removal targets

No separate emission reduction and removal targets

Review Process

Non-legally binding process to review net zero target OR In process of establishing a review cycle for net zero

Carbon dioxide removal

No transparent assumptions on carbon dioxide removals

Comprehensive planning

There is no information or underlying analysis available on the anticipated pathway or measures to achieve net zero emissions

Clarity on fairness of target

Country makes no reference to fairness or equity in the context of its net zero target

Ten key elements


  • Target year – Australia aims to reach net zero by 2050.
  • Emissions coverage – The target covers all GHG emissions (i.e., the 7 Kyoto gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3) and all sectors of the economy (Australian Government, 2021c).
  • International aviation and shipping – The target exclude both international aviation and shipping (Australian Government, 2021).
  • Reductions or removals outside of own borders – Australia intends to rely on international offset credits to meet its net zero target. Australia’s Long-term Emissions Reduction Plan indicates it plans to rely on international and domestic offsets for 10% of needed reductions to reach net-zero by 2050.

Target architecture

  • Legal status – Australia included the net zero target in its Long-term Emissions Reduction Plan submitted to the UNFCCC as Australia’s LTS (Australian Government, 2021). The 2022 NDC update aims to formalise its targets in legislation.
  • Separate reduction & removal targets – Australia does not provide separate emission reduction and removal targets.
  • Review process – Australia has a non-legally binding process in place to review the net zero target itself and intermediate targets. The Climate Change Authority has to publish an annual statement tracking progress made on climate change. The Long-term Emission Reductions Plan states the plan will be refined through five yearly ‘review and refine’ cycles.


  • Carbon dioxide removal – Australia does not provide transparent assumptions on carbon dioxide removals. The Plan assimilates land-based domestic offsets and international offsets to CDR despite the issues surrounding offsets in Australia (see section on LULUCF)(Australian Government, 2021a).
  • Comprehensive planning – Australia’s Long-term Emission Reductions Plan lacks specific emission pathways on how to reach net zero emissions (Australian Government, 2021; Australian Government, 2021a). The plan indicates 40% of the emissions reductions needed to achieve net zero can be achieved through adoption of low emission technologies prioritised through Australia’s Technology Investment Roadmap and 10% can be achieved through domestic and international offsets. There is a significant emissions gap remaining by 2050 that is not fully accounted for in Australia’s plan.
  • Clarity on fairness of target – There is no reference to equity or fairness in either a government or an advisory document, or only vague statement with missing explanation in Australia’s NDC (Australian Government, 2021c).

Good practice

The Climate Action Tracker has defined the following good practice for all ten key elements of net zero targets. Countries can refer to this good practice to design or enhance their net zero targets.

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