Egypt

Overall rating
Highly insufficient
Policies & action
Insufficient
< 3°C World
Internationally supported target
Highly insufficient
< 4°C World
Fair share target
Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Climate finance
Not assessed
Net zero target

Comprehensiveness not rated as

No target
Land use & forestry
Not significant

Target overview

Egypt submitted its updated NDC to the UNFCCC on 7 July 2022. The new NDC does not include an economy-wide emissions target but instead includes emissions reductions to be achieved in the electricity, transport and oil & gas sub-sectors (Government of Egypt, 2022a). Egypt also lists measures for the industry, buildings, tourism and waste sectors but does not commit to specific emissions reductions. The agriculture and land use sectors are excluded from mitigation action in the NDC. The lack of transparency in the NDC makes any assessment of the targets difficult.

The NDC is conditional on Egypt receiving international support. Egypt does not specify whether any portion of the NDC is unconditional.

In order to receive a 1.5°C compatible rating for its climate targets, Egypt would need to do the following:

  • Submit a conditional NDC target to reduce emissions by approximately 25% by 2030 compared to today’s levels
  • Submit an unconditional NDC stabilising emissions roughly at today’s levels by 2030.

Egypt submitted its updated NDC on 7 July 2022 (Government of Egypt, 2022a). The new NDC target is conditional on international support and Egypt still does not have an unconditional emissions reduction target. Egypt’s previous and first NDC submission did not have an emissions reduction target.

The new NDC does not include an economy-wide emissions target but instead includes emissions reductions to be achieved in the following sub-sectors: electricity, transport and oil & gas.

By 2030, Egypt pledges to the following emissions levels in these sectors:

  • Electricity: 145* MtCO2e (down from a business-as-usual scenario of 215* MtCO2e)
  • Transport: 115* MtCO2e (down from a business-as-usual scenario of 124* MtCO2e)
  • Oil & gas production (associated gases sub-sector): 1.1 MtCO2e1 (down from a business-as-usual scenario of 3.1 MtCO2e2)

*NOTE: The figures used in Egypt’s NDC use global warming potential values from the IPCC’s Second Assessment Report (SAR). We have not converted the values from electricity and transport to AR4 values as CO2 is the dominant gas (see the Assumptions section for further details).

These three sectors accounted for 42% of Egypt’s total GHG emissions3 in 2015, the baseline year. In total, Egypt pledges to reduce emissions by 81 MtCO2e compared to a business-as-usual pathway in these sectors.

Egypt also lists measures for the industry, buildings, tourism and waste sectors but does not commit to specific emissions reductions. The agriculture and land use sectors are excluded from mitigation action in the NDC.

We estimate the conditional NDC target would lead to emissions increasing from around 350 MtCO2e today to 507–522 MtCO2e in 2030. The emissions level resulting from this target is well above what we project Egypt’s emissions trajectory to be with the policies it has implemented. Emissions for the electricity and transport sectors would to increase by 65% and 140%, respectively, between 2015 and 2030.

Egypt has not communicated its BAU scenario, making it difficult to quantify the overall emissions level resulting from the NDC. We have estimated a BAU scenario using the values provided for electricity, transport and oil & gas and estimating emissions for the remaining sectors using historical trends. The upper end of our target range is based on the quantified reductions for the three sub-sectors only. For the lower end, we also estimated some of the emissions reductions for the policies and measures proposed for the industry and buildings sector. For more details on our calculations, please refer to the assumptions section.

Beyond increasing the emissions reduction target, there are several things Egypt could do to improve its NDC:

  • Submit an unconditional NDC target
  • Update the target to cover the whole economy, not just a few sectors
  • Update the target from its current “below BAU” to an absolute emissions reduction target

1 0.89 MtCO2e in SAR GWP, as expressed in the original NDC document. See assumptions section for further details on conversion.

2 2.6 MtCO2e in SAR GWP, as expressed in the original NDC document. See assumptions section for further details on conversion.

3 Expressed in AR4 Global Warming Potential. Egypt’s NDC, expressed in SAR GWP, states these sectors accounted for 43% of total emissions in 2015.

CAT rating of targets

The CAT rates NDC targets against what a fair contribution to achieving the Paris Agreement’s long-term temperature goal would be as well as against what needs to happen within a country’s own borders.

Egypt only has a conditional target. We rate the conditional target against the level of reductions needed within its border (‘internationally supported target’). Egypt does not have an unconditional emissions reduction target. In the absence of a target, we use our estimate for Egypt’s business-as-usual target as its unconditional target.

Further information on how the CAT rates countries (against modelled pathways and fair share) can be found here.

Internationally supported target:
Highly insufficient

The CAT rates Egypt’s conditional target “Highly insufficient”. The “Highly insufficient” rating indicates that Egypt’s internationally supported target in 2030 leads to rising, rather than falling, emissions and is not at all consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C temperature limit. If all countries were to follow Egypt’s approach, warming could reach over 3°C and up to 4°C.

Fair share target:
Critically insufficient

In the absence of an unconditional NDC emissions reduction target, the CAT takes Egypt’s estimated ‘business as usual’ scenario as its unconditional commitment and rates it “Critically insufficient”. The “Critically insufficient” rating signals minimal to no action and is not at all consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C temperature limit. Egypt’s (estimated) target is not in line with any interpretation of a fair approach to meeting the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit. If all countries were to follow Egypt’s approach, warming would exceed 4°C.

Egypt would need to roughly stabilise emissions at today’s levels to meet its fair share of the global mitigation effort to keep temperature rise below 1.5°C.

Net zero and other long-term target(s)

Egypt does not have a net zero target, nor has it submitted a long-term strategy (LTS) to the UNFCCC as of June July 2022. Egypt launched its 2050 National Climate Change Strategy in May 2022 but it does not contain an emissions reduction target (Government of Egypt, 2022b).

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