Egypt

Overall rating
Highly insufficient
Policies & action
Insufficient
< 3°C World
Internationally supported target
Highly insufficient
< 4°C World
Fair share target
Critically insufficient
4°C+ World
Climate finance
Not assessed
Net zero target

Comprehensiveness not rated as

No target
Land use & forestry
Not significant
  • Abu Zaid, M. (2021) Egypt planning $4bn green hydrogen gas project, Arab News. Available at: https://www.arabnews.com/node/1876061/business-economy (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Amr Osama, et al. (2019) “Egypt Low Emissions Development Strategy ( LEDS ) Objectives of LEDS,” p. 16.
  • Climate and Clean Air Coalition Secretariat (2021) Global Methane Pledge. Available at: https://www.globalmethanepledge.org/#pledges (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • Daily News Egypt (2020) Electricity Ministry defers construction of Hamrawein coal-fired plant indefinitely, Daily News Egypt. Available at: https://dailynewsegypt.com/2020/02/24/electricity-ministry-defers-construction-of-hamrawein-coal-fired-plant-indefinitely/ (Accessed: May 24, 2022).
  • EBRD (2016) Low-Carbon Roadmap for the Egyptian Cement Industry.
  • EBRD (2017) EBRD provides US$200 million loan to develop Egypt’s gas infrastructure, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Available at: https://www.ebrd.com/news/2017/ebrd-provides-us200-million-loan-to-develop-egypts-gas-infrastructure-.html (Accessed: April 28, 2022).
  • EBRD (2022) EBRD assesses low-carbon hydrogen in Egypt, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Available at: https://www.ebrd.com/news/2022/ebrd-assesses-lowcarbon-hydrogen-in-egypt.html (Accessed: April 28, 2022).
  • Egypt Today (2022) Egypt launches National Strategy for Climate Change 2050, Egypt Today. Available at: https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/1/116031/Egypt-launches-National-Strategy-for-Climate-Change-2050 (Accessed: May 24, 2022).
  • Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2021) Launch of the Egypt National Climate Change Strategy-2050, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency News Center. Available at: https://www.eeaa.gov.eg/en-us/mediacenter/newscenter.aspx?articleID=6876.
  • EIA (2022) International data, U.S. Energy Information Administration. Available at: https://www.eia.gov/international/data/world (Accessed: March 31, 2022).
  • EIU (2021) Egypt Automotive: Egypt plans to increase use of natural gas in vehicles, The Economist Intelligence Unit. Available at: http://country.eiu.com/ArticleIndustry.aspx?articleid=860578869&Country=Egypt&topic=Industry&subtopic=Automotive (Accessed: April 28, 2022).
  • El-Din, M.A. (2022) Egypt to sign MoU with foreign consultancy to explore opportunities for green hydrogen production: Electricity minister - Energy - Business - Ahram Online, AhramOnline. Available at: https://english.ahram.org.eg/News/454602.aspx (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Enterprise (2020a) El Sisi ratifies Egypt’s waste management law. Available at: https://enterprise.press/stories/2020/10/18/el-sisi-ratifies-egypts-waste-management-law-23377/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Enterprise (2020b) Is Egypt ready for electric vehicles? Available at: https://enterprise.press/stories/2020/06/10/is-egypt-ready-for-electric-vehicles-16905/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Enterprise (2020c) Where did things go wrong with Egypt’s waste management? Available at: https://enterprise.press/stories/2020/07/08/where-did-things-go-wrong-with-egypts-waste-management-18499/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Enterprise (2021a) Is the use of coal in Egypt’s industry about to get nerfed? Available at: https://enterprise.press/stories/2021/11/09/is-the-use-of-coal-in-egypts-industry-about-to-get-nerfed-57694/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Enterprise (2021b) Slightly less cement oversupply. Available at: https://enterprise.press/stories/2021/11/23/slightly-less-cement-oversupply-58809/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Enterprise (2021c) Your electricity bill is going up. Available at: https://enterprise.press/stories/2021/06/22/your-electricity-bill-is-going-up-45665/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Enterprise (2021d) بسبب الجائحة.. محطة الضبعة النووية لن تنتهي قبل 2030 | انتربرايز. Available at: https://enterprise.press/ar/stories/2021/07/14/%d8%a8%d8%b3%d8%a8%d8%a8-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%ac%d8%a7%d8%a6%d8%ad%d8%a9-%d9%85%d8%ad%d8%b7%d8%a9-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b6%d8%a8%d8%b9%d8%a9-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%86%d9%88%d9%88%d9%8a%d8%a9-%d9%84%d9%86-%d8%aa%d9%86/ (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • GGFR (2021a) Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership Data 2020. Available at: https://www.ggfrdata.org/ (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • GGFR (2021b) Global Gas Flaring Tracker Report. Available at: https://thedocs.worldbank.org/en/doc/1f7221545bf1b7c89b850dd85cb409b0-0400072021/original/WB-GGFR-Report-Design-05a.pdf (Accessed: August 13, 2021).
  • GGFR (2022) Zero Routine Flaring (ZRF) by 2030. Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/zero-routine-flaring-by-2030/about (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • Global Carbon Project (2020) Carbon budget and trends 2020.
  • Global Carbon Project (2021) 2021: Annual change in fossil CO2 territorial emissions, Global Carbon Budget. Available at: https://enactivescience.com/gcp2021/ (Accessed: March 30, 2021).
  • Global Energy Monitor (2020) Global Coal Plant Tracker, Global Energy Monitor. Available at: https://endcoal.org/global-coal-plant-tracker/ (Accessed: October 27, 2020).
  • Government of Egypt (2017a) “Egypt’s First Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC),” pp. 1–13.
  • Government of Egypt (2017b) “Egypt’s First Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC),” pp. 1–13. Available at: https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/ndcstaging/PublishedDocuments/Egypt First/Egyptian INDC.pdf.
  • Government of Egypt (2020a) Zohr Natural Gas Field Project, Presidency of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Available at: https://www.presidency.eg/en/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D9%88%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%A9/%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B9-%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%84-%D8%B8%D9%87%D8%B1-%D9%84%D9%84%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%B2-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B7%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%B9%D9%8A/ (Accessed: April 22, 2022).
  • Government of Egypt (2020b) Zohr Natural Gas Field Project, Presidency of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Available at: https://www.presidency.eg/en/المشاريع-القومية/مشروع-حقل-ظهر-للغاز-الطبيعي/ (Accessed: April 22, 2022).
  • Government of Egypt (2022a) Egypt’s First Updated Nationally Determined Contributions. Available at: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-07/Egypt Updated NDC.pdf.pdf.
  • Government of Egypt (2022b) Egypt National Climate Change Strategy 2050 - Summary for Policymakers. Available at: https://www.eeaa.gov.eg/portals/0/eeaaReports/N-CC/EgyptNSCC-2050-Summary-En.pdf (Accessed: 1 August 2022).Green Tech Egypt (2021a) Signing the cooperation protocol between the ministries of “Military Production” partner of the Renergy Consortium , “Local Development” and “Environment” and “Giza Governorate” for the first Waste To Energy plant in Egypt – Green Tech Egypt. Available at: https://greentech-egypt.com/signing-the-cooperation-protocol-between-the-ministries-of-military-production-partner-of-the-renergy-consortium-local-development-and-environment/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Green Tech Egypt (2021b) Waste to Energy. Available at: https://greentech-egypt.com/service/waste-to-energy/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Gütschow, J. et al. (2021) The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series (1850-2018) (Version 2.2), PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions. Available at: https://www.pik-potsdam.de/paris-reality-check/primap-hist.
  • IEA (2019) “Egypt country analysis.” Available at: https://www.iea.org/countries/egypt.
  • IEA (2021a) “Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector.” International Energy Agency (IEA).
  • IEA (2021b) World Energy Balances 2021. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.
  • Infinity (2022). Available at: https://infinityevcharge.com/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • IRENA (2018) Renewable Energy Outlook - Egypt.
  • IRENA (2022) Renewable Capacity Statistics 2022.
  • Mikhail, G. (2021) Egypt postpones nuclear power plant amid tensions with Russia over Nile dam. Available at: https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2021/07/egypt-postpones-nuclear-power-plant-amid-tensions-russia-over-nile-dam (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • Ministry of Commerce and Industry (2021) The Minister of Commerce and Industry issues a decision allowing the import of used electric passenger cars. Available at: http://www.mti.gov.eg/Arabic/MediaCenter/News/Pages/%D9%88%D8%B2%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A9-%D9%8A%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%8B-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%AD-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AF-%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D9%83%D9%88%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D9%87%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%A6%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D8%A9-.aspx (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Ministry of Petroleum & Mineral Resources (2022) Announcing the Results of the International Bid Round for Oil and Gas Exploration. Available at: https://www.petroleum.gov.eg/en/media-center/news/news-pages/Pages/mop_01032022_01.aspx (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • Ministry of Public Business Sector (2021a) وزارة قطاع الأعمال العام - “توفيق”: بدء أعمال لجنة محطات الشحن الكهربائية.. وإنتاج السيارة “نصرE70” منتصف 2022. Available at: http://www.mpbs.gov.eg/Arabic/MediaCenter/News/Pages/NEW265.aspx (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Ministry of Public Business Sector (2021b) وزارة قطاع الأعمال العام - “قطاع الأعمال”: بدء تجربة السيارة الكهربائية “E70” بالتعاون مع “أوبر.” Available at: http://www.mpbs.gov.eg/Arabic/MediaCenter/News/Pages/new305.aspx (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Ministry of Public Business Sector (2021c) وزارة قطاع الأعمال العام - “قطاع الأعمال”: مشروع إنتاج السيارة الكهربائية “قائم”.. وتوفير حزمة من المحفزات. Available at: http://www.mpbs.gov.eg/Arabic/MediaCenter/News/Pages/new324.aspx (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Ministry of Public Business Sector (2021d) وزارة قطاع الأعمال العام - “قطاع الأعمال”: مشروع إنتاج السيارة الكهربائية “قائم”.. وتوفير حزمة من المحفزات. Available at: http://www.mpbs.gov.eg/Arabic/MediaCenter/News/Pages/new324.aspx (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Ministry of Public Business Sector (2021e) وزارة قطاع الأعمال العام - وزير قطاع الأعمال العام يشهد توقيع اتفاقية بين “الهندسية للسيارات” و"برايت سكايز". Available at: http://www.mpbs.gov.eg/Arabic/MediaCenter/News/Pages/325.aspx (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • New & Renewable Energy Authority (2020) Annual Report 2020. Available at: http://nrea.gov.eg/Content/reports/Annual%20Report%202020%20En.pdf (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Nuclear Power Plants Authority (2022a) Applications made to build El Dabaa units 3 and 4 . Available at: https://nppa.gov.eg/en/applications-made-to-build-el-dabaa-units-3-and-4/ (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • Nuclear Power Plants Authority (2022b) El-Dabaa NPP Project | NPPA. Available at: https://nppa.gov.eg/en/el-dabaa-npp-project-2/#ProjectOverview (Accessed: April 21, 2022).
  • Presidency of the Arab Republic of Egypt (2021) President El-Sisi Meets with Prime Minister and Minister of Electricity and Renewable Energy. Available at: https://www.presidency.eg/en/%D9%82%D8%B3%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%AE%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1/%D8%A3%D8%AE%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%B1%D8%A6%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A9/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D8%A6%D9%8A%D8%B3-%D8%B9%D8%A8%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%AD-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%8A-%D9%8A%D8%AC%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%B9-%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A6%D9%8A%D8%B3-%D9%85%D8%AC%D9%84%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D8%B2%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D9%88%D9%88%D8%B2%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D9%87%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B7%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%AA%D8%AC%D8%AF%D8%AF%D8%A9-10072021/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Riad & Riad (2020) Egypt Sets Waste-to-Energy Tariff - riad-riad.com. Available at: https://riad-riad.com/egypt-sets-waste-energy-tariff/ (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • Transport & Environment (2020) Compressed natural gas vehicles are not a clean solution for transport - Review of the latest evidence shows high levels of particle emissions.
  • UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) (2021) Global Coal to Clean Power Transition Statement . Available at: https://ukcop26.org/global-coal-to-clean-power-transition-statement/ (Accessed: December 7, 2021).
  • U.S. Energy Information Administration (2022) Natural gas - Data. Available at: https://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/data.php (Accessed: April 27, 2022).
  • U.S. ITA (2021) Egypt - Country Commercial Guide, International Trade Administration of the United States of America. Available at: https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/egypt-information-and-communications-technology-and-digital-economy?navcard=10470 (Accessed: February 25, 2022).
  • Vanderborght, B. et al. (2016) Low-Carbon Roadmap for the Egyptian Cement Industry .

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