Net zero targets
We evaluate the target as: Poor
In 2021, Türkiye announced a 2053 net zero target (Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, 2021).
Since then, Türkiye’s newly established Climate Council, composed of nearly 1,000 government officials, academics, business members, and NGOs, convened in February 2022 to develop a roadmap to achieve net zero emissions and set other green development targets (Hürriyet Daily News, 2022a). The roadmap was released in June 2022 and contains 217 recommendations covering energy, transportation, industry, agriculture, LULUCF, waste, and building sectors (Köksal & Kaya, 2022; Ministry of Environment, 2022).
Some of the key recommendations include the creation of the National Green Finance Strategy, “Ulusal Yeşil Finans Stratejisi”, the development of national green taxonomy legislation, and the implementation calendar of the Emissions Trading System (Gundogmus, 2022). While the roadmap stresses the need to increase renewable energy sources, it does not include a phase-out of coal power. It also states that fossil gas exploration and production should be increased (Alp, 2022; Ministry of Environment, 2022).
Türkiye is also preparing a first draft of the climate law, "İklim Kanunu", set to be completed by the end of 2022 which the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye will consider in 2023 (Grand National Assembly of Türkiye [Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi], 2022; Gundogmus, 2022). The law is intended to help Türkiye meet its 2053 net zero emissions reduction target (Hürriyet Daily News, 2022b).
While some of the policy planning for the target has advanced this year, there is much in the target architecture and design that could be improved. In particular, the climate law could clearly state that the 2053 net zero target covers all GHG emissions in all sectors, includes both international aviation and shipping, and that net zero will be reached through domestic actions alone and not through the use international offset credits. The government could also provide pathways for reaching net zero (See Şahin et al., 2021 for a net zero pathway generated by a Turkish research institute).
Türkiye was expected to submit a long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategy (LTS) by the end of 2022, but as of March 2023 it has not done so (Daily Sabah, 2022a).
CAT analysis of net zero target
Ten key elements
- Target year – Türkiye aims to reach net zero by 2053.
- Emissions coverage – The roadmap produced by Türkiye’s Climate Council mentions methane and carbon dioxide but it is not clear whether all GHG emissions are covered. All sectors of the economy excluding international aviation and shipping, are covered by the roadmap but it does not provide quantified targets (Ministry of Environment, 2022; Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, 2021).
- International aviation and shipping – Türkiye has not provide any information on its intention to cover international aviation and shipping.
- Reductions or removals outside of own borders – It remains uncertain whether Türkiye intends to use international offset credits to meet its net zero target. Türkiye intends to include the legislation on offsetting by 2024 within the scope of its yet-to-be-established Emissions Trading System (Ministry of Environment, 2022).
- Legal status – Türkiye included its net zero target of 2053 in its latest climate policy roadmap developed by the country’s Climate Council in February 2022 (Ministry of Environment, 2022). Türkiye has yet to submit its LTS to the UNFCCC.
- Separate reduction & removal targets – Türkiye provides no information on its intention to communicate separate emission reduction and removal targets.
- Review process – Türkiye provides no information on its intention to establish a review cycle for its net zero and intermediate targets.
- Carbon dioxide removal – Türkiye does not provide transparent assumptions on carbon dioxide removals.
- Comprehensive planning – In June 2022, Türkiye released a roadmap to achieve its net zero target. The roadmap includes 217 policy measures and action, however many are lacking in detail and the potential emissions reductions are not quantified (Ministry of Environment, 2022). The roadmap also does not include an emissions pathway compatible with achieving its target. Türkiye was also expected to submit an LTS by the end of 2022, but has yet to do so (Daily Sabah, 2022a).
- Clarity on fairness of target – Türkiye makes no reference to fairness or equity in the context of its net zero target.
The Climate Action Tracker has defined the following good practice for all ten key elements of net zero targets. Countries can refer to this good practice to design or enhance their net zero targets.