Global Warming Potentials
All figures in this assessment are consistent with the global warming potentials (GWPs) from the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
Historical emissions are based on government data where the data was available (MNRE 2019; Viet Nam Government 2017b). Historical emissions from 1994 to 2013 are based on the Second Biennial Report submitted to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Viet Nam Government 2017b). The latest emissions data (year 2014) was also included from Viet Nam’s third national communication to the UNFCCC (MNRE 2019). Interpolations were used in the years not reported. PRIMAP data is used for years 1990 to 1994 (Gütschow, Jeffery, and Gieseke 2019).
Data for CO2 emissions in the agriculture sector is missing in the government sources but CH4 and N2O are included (MNRE 2019; Viet Nam Government 2017b), which account for the larger share of emissions in the agriculture sector.
The government data on industrial processes and product use (IPPU) only includes CO2 (MNRE 2019; Viet Nam Government 2017b). We have added non-CO2 emissions from the US EPA (2019a) for full coverage of industry sector emissions.
Emissions from 2010 were recalculated by the government in 2014 (Viet Nam Government 2017b). The NDC uses a different figure for 2010 emissions, with a difference of 2.7%, amounting to 273 MtCO2e (excl. LULUCF, incl. IPPU) (Viet Nam Government 2017b).
Pledges and targets
The pledge emissions are found in Viet Nam’s NDC (Viet Nam Government 2016). The BAU scenario for GHG emissions assumes economic growth in the absence of climate change policies (Viet Nam Government 2016). The pledge includes energy, agriculture, waste and LULUCF sectors, and excludes the industrial processes and product use (IPPU) sector. The BAU starts from 2010 and projections for 2020 and 2030 are 474.1 and 787.4 MtCO2e, respectively. Sectoral emissions from the same years are found in the Technical Report for Viet Nam’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (Viet Nam Government 2015). Interpolations were used in the years not reported.
We remove LULUCF to focus on the emissions intensive sectors of industry and energy. Government figures for LULUCF in 2030 were -45 MtCO2e in the BAU scenario (Viet Nam Government 2015).
As IPPU emissions are not included in the government’s NDC, we created a business as usual IPPU scenario based on a number of assumptions.
Government historical emissions for IPPU only include CO2. We assume a constant share of IPPU CO2 emissions from the 2014 data from the third national communication to the UNFCCC (MNRE 2019) to create a Business-as-usual pathway. In 2014, the IPPU CO2 emissions were an additional 13.5% “Markup” on top of all emissions without LULUCF and without IPPU. This share is used to project IPPU CO2 emissions to 2030. This is a conservative assumption, since the share of IPPU emissions has been increasing in the past.
US EPA (2019b) data projections are used for the IPPU non-CO2 emissions (F-gases) to 2030. The US EPA based projections uses either country reported data, and where data is not available the US EPA uses calculated estimates based on IPCC default emissions factors and globally available data (US EPA 2019a).
Viet Nam’s NDC includes additional sub target pledges on the emissions intensity of GDP. The pledge description is not clear as to whether the intensity targets include IPPU. CO2 IPPU emissions and LULUCF are included in the NDC baseline 2010 emissions (Viet Nam Government 2015, 2016), so we assume that the emissions intensity of GDP targets do include IPPU and LULUCF. Our calculations factor out LULUCF.
Our calculations use GDP figures from government sources. We use GDP at the current prices from Viet Nam’s Third National Communication (MNRE 2019) and GDP growth rates from the first Biennial Report (Vietnam Government 2014).
Current policy projections
The current policy scenario is based on projections from APERC (2019a) business as usual (BAU) scenario. The APERC BAU scenario projects CO2 emissions of current and planned policies in the energy sector. The energy sector covers over 50% of Viet Nam’s emissions.
The APERC (2019a) BAU scenario has a number of assumptions: Electricity use from appliance and buildings reflect economic growth and urbanisation. Industry plays a key role in the economy, where steel, iron and cement industry continue to dominate the industry sector. Regarding transport, energy elasticity is linked to GDP consistent with the base year fuel mix. Biodiesel is not included as it assumes no market penetration of the product. It is assumed that increases in the number of vehicles continues. The energy supply mix matches the sectoral plans, including coal and natural gas targets, and LNG terminal plans. The production of oil is based on available reserves and historical data. The optimisation and capacity of the power mix is based on the Revised PDP7. The scenario projects a decrease in the use of biomass, but biomass is the main renewable energy source in the power sector. Energy is imported when demand is not met by domestic supply.
The APERC BAU scenario considers the Viet Nam National Energy Efficiency Program (VNEEP) phase one and two, the shift from traditional fuels to electrification, the National Technical Regulation on Energy Efficiency Buildings, and the Energy Efficiency Building Code technical standards. It does not include the recent VNEEP Phase three (MOIT 2018) which would reduce energy demand (APERC 2019b).
Current policy projections for energy non-CO2 emissions are based on US EPA (2019b) data.
Agriculture and waste emissions projections are based on the latest historical emissions in 2014 from the Third National Communication (MNRE 2019), with a trend from the growth rates of the US EPA (2019b) non-CO2 data.
Projections for LULUCF (when included) are based on historical data for year 2014 the Third National Communication (MNRE 2019) and projections from the INDC Technical report (Viet Nam Government 2015) with interpolations between unreported years.
Current policy IPPU emissions follow the same trajectory as in the BAU scenario, as Vietnam’s industry policies are based on energy related industry and not IPPU (see the industry section discussion for details of policies).